Beyond Ockham's razor: redefining problem-solving in clinical sleep medicine using a "five-finger" approach.
The rule of diagnostic parsimony--otherwise known as "Ockham's Razor"--teaches students of medicine to find a single unifying diagnosis to explain a given patient's symptoms. While this approach has merits in some settings, a more comprehensive approach is often needed for patients with chronic, nonspecific presentations for which there is a broad differential diagnosis. The cardinal manifestations of sleep disorders--daytime neurocognitive impairment and subjective sleep disturbances-are examples of such presentations. Successful sleep medicine clinicians therefore approach every patient with the knowledge that multiple diagnoses-rather than simply one-are likely to be found. Teaching an integrated and comprehensive approach to other clinicians in an organized and reproducible fashion is challenging, and the evaluation of effectiveness of such teaching is even more so. As a practical aid for teaching the approach to--and evaluation of--a comprehensive sleep medicine encounter, five functional domains of sleep medicine clinical problem-solving are presented as potential sources for sleep/wake disruption: (1) circadian misalignment, (2) pharmacologic factors, (3) medical factors, (4) psychiatric/psychosocial factors, and (5) primary sleep medicine diagnoses. These domains are presented and explained in an easy-to-remember "five finger" format. The five finger format can be used in real time to evaluate the completeness of a clinical encounter, or can be used in the design of standardized patients to identify areas of strength and potential weakness. A score sheet based upon this approach is offered as an alternative to commonly used Likert scales as a potentially more objective and practical measure of clinical problem-solving competence, making it useful for training programs striving to achieve or maintain fellowship accreditation. (+info)
Sleep medicine certification and accreditation.
Sleep-disorders medicine is undergoing substantial evolution in terms of testing and therapy. In order to ensure that the providers of care for patients with sleep disorders provide quality and safe care, various types of individual certification and sleep-disorders-center accreditation programs have been developed. These programs should help to ensure optimal patient care. (+info)
Canadian Sleep Society/Canadian Thoracic Society position paper on the use of portable monitoring for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea in adults.
The present position paper on the use of portable monitoring (PM) as a diagnostic tool for obstructive sleep apneahypopnea (OSAH) in adults was based on consensus and expert opinion regarding best practice standards from stakeholders across Canada. These recommendations were prepared to guide appropriate clinical use of this new technology and to ensure that quality assurance standards are adhered to. Clinical guidelines for the use of PM for the diagnosis and management of OSAH as an alternative to in-laboratory polysomnography published by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Portable Monitoring Task Force were used to tailor our recommendations to address the following: indications; methodology including physician involvement, physician and technical staff qualifications, and follow-up requirements; technical considerations; quality assurance; and conflict of interest guidelines. When used appropriately under the supervision of a physician with training in sleep medicine, and in conjunction with a comprehensive sleep evaluation, PM may expedite treatment when there is a high clinical suspicion of OSAH. (+info)
Education in sleep disorders in US dental schools DDS programs.