Sequelae of sarin toxicity at one and three years after exposure in Matsumoto, Japan.
In order to clarify the later sequelae of sarin poisoning that occurred in Matsumoto City, Japan, on June 27, 1994, a cohort study was conducted on all persons (2052 Japanese people) inhabiting an area 1050 meters from north to south and 850 meters from east to west with the sarin release site in the center. Respondents numbered 1237 and 836 people when surveys were conducted at one and three years after the sarin incident, respectively. Numbers of persons with symptoms of sarin toxicity were compared between sarin victims and non-victims. Of the respondents, 58 and 46 people had symptoms associated with sarin such as fatigue, asthenia, shoulder stiffness, asthenopia and blurred vision at both points of the survey, respectively. The prevalences were low; some complained of insomnia, had bad dreams, difficulty in smoking, husky voice, slight fever and palpitation. The victims who had symptoms one year after the incident had a lower erythrocyte cholinesterase activity than did those who did not have symptoms at the early stage; such persons lived in an area with a 500 meter long axis north east from the sarin release site. The three-year cohort study clearly showed that the odds ratios of almost all of the symptoms were high in the sarin-exposed group, suggesting a positive relationship between symptoms and grades of exposure to sarin. These results suggest that symptoms reported by many victims of the sarin incident are thought to be sequelae related to sarin exposure. (+info)
Zopiclone use during pregnancy.
QUESTION: One of my patients, whom I had treated with a 2-week course of zopiclone for insomnia, conceived while using the medication. She is concerned. How should I advise her? ANSWER: Based on available, albeit limited, evidence, zopiclone does not appear to be a major human teratogen. (+info)
The diagnosis and management of insomnia in clinical practice: a practical evidence-based approach.
Insomnia, or the dissatisfaction with the quantity, quality or timing of sleep, is a common complaint. Because the definition of "normal" sleep is not well established, the estimates of the prevalence and severity of insomnia vary widely. Insomnia is often secondary to underlying psychiatric and medical conditions, and these should be evaluated and treated as a first measure. Nonpharmacological interventions for insomnia including sleep hygiene manoeuvres and exercise are recommended, although the success of these interventions has not been well documented. Benzodiazepines have been the pharmacologic agents of choice for the treatment of insomnia, but there is reason to exercise caution with their use; their overall benefit compared with placebo appears to be minor, and they are often associated with adverse cognitive effects. Unfortunately, no other class of drugs has proven to be superior to the benzodiazepines in terms of benefit:risk ratio. Given the importance of sleep for health and normal daily functioning the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of insomnia should be a research priority. (+info)
Meta-analysis of benzodiazepine use in the treatment of insomnia.
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the benefits and risks associated with the use of benzodiazepines to treat insomnia in adults. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry were searched for English-language articles published from 1966 to December 1998 that described randomized controlled trials of benzodiazepines for the treatment of insomnia. Key words included "benzodiazepines" (exploded), "randomized controlled trial" and "insomnia." Bibliographies of relevant articles were reviewed for additional studies and manufacturers of benzodiazepines were asked to submit additional randomized controlled trial reports not in the literature. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were considered for the meta-analysis if they were randomized controlled trials involving patients with insomnia and compared a benzodiazepine with placebo or another active agent. Of the 89 trials originally identified, 45 met our criteria, representing a total of 2672 patients. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted regarding the participants, the setting, details of the intervention, the outcomes (including adverse effects) and the methodologic quality of the studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: The meta-analyses of sleep records indicated that, when compared with placebo, benzodiazepines decreased sleep latency by 4.2 minutes (non-significant; 95% confidence interval (CI -0.7 to 9.2) and significantly increased total sleep duration by 61.8 minutes (95% CI 37.4 to 86.2). Patient-reported outcomes were more optimistic for sleep latency; those randomized to benzodiazepine treatment estimated a sleep latency decrease of 14.3 minutes (95% CI 10.6 to 18.0). Although more patients receiving benzodiazepine treatment reported adverse effects, especially daytime drowsiness and dizziness or light-headedness (common odds ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.4), dropout rates for the benzodiazepine and placebo groups were similar. Cognitive function decline including memory impairment was reported in several of the studies. Zopiclone was not found to be superior to benzodiazepines on any of the outcome measures examined. INTERPRETATION: The use of benzodiazepines in the treatment of insomnia is associated with an increase in sleep duration, but this is countered by a number of adverse effects. Additional studies evaluating the efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions would be valuable. (+info)
Prevalence of insomnia in a survey of 12,778 adults in France.
This study was an epidemiological questionnaire survey of a representative sample of the French population that included 12 778 individuals and in which adapted DSM-IV criteria for the definition of insomnia were used. Our goals were not only to assess the prevalence of 'insomnia' using these criteria, but also to compare the results obtained with those of prior studies using different definitions of 'insomnia'. The aim of this study was also to identify where areas of agreement and disagreement existed, as we believe that it is important to emphasize these points because DSM-IV recommendations are supposedly reflected in clinical practice. Seventy-three per cent of the individuals surveyed complained of a nocturnal sleep problem, but only 29% reported at least one sleep problem three times per week for a month, and 19% (2428 subjects) had at least one sleep problem three times per week for a month and complained of daytime consequences (DSM-IV criteria). Only 9% had two or more nocturnal sleep problems with daytime consequences and were classified as 'severe insomniacs'. Our study indicates that if DSM-IV criteria are used, the diagnosis of 'insomnia' is lower than in other epidemiological studies. The DSM criteria have an advantage in that they emphasize the daytime consequences of nocturnal sleep disturbances, which seem to be responsible for the most important socio-economic costs of the problem. (+info)
Subjective measurement of insomnia and quality of life in depressed inpatients.
Insomnia and major depressive episodes (MDE) have each been associated with quality of life (QOL) deficits. In this study we examined insomnia as an independent predictor of QOL deficits during MDE, and used a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. The study was based at the inpatient psychiatric ward and included 88 adults (mean age 53; 78% women). We assessed insomnia severity with the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Measurements of QOL in the week prior to admission included activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental ADLs (IADLs), daily living and role functioning, and relation to self and colleagues (the last two both subscales of the Basis 32). Linear regression models used the insomnia items as independent variables and the QOL measures as the dependent variables, after adjusting for age and nonsleep related depression severity. The results showed that 93% of patients endorsed insomnia on the observer-rated HRSD, and 97% endorsed sleep disturbance in the self-rated BDI. However, the insomnia items on the HRSD and BDI showed poor concurrent validity. Increasing severity of insomnia on the HDRS was associated with better QOL, while increasing severity of insomnia on the BDI was associated with worse QOL. We conclude that the BDI and HRSD do not produce equivalent measures of insomnia severity in depressed inpatients, and each insomnia measure has a unique relationship with QOL. (+info)
Familial incidence of insomnia.
This study evaluated the familial incidence of sleep disturbances among individuals with insomnia complaints. The sample consisted of 285 patients evaluated for insomnia at a sleep disorders clinic. All patients completed a sleep survey and underwent a semistructured clinical interview as part of their initial evaluation of insomnia. Information on the presence and nature of sleep disturbances among their family members (first- and second-degree relatives) was obtained from a sleep survey. The findings indicate that 35% of patients consulting for insomnia had a positive family history of sleep disturbances. Insomnia was the most common type of sleep disturbance identified (76%) and the mother was the most frequently afflicted family member. Reports of sleep disturbances among a family member were more prevalent when the onset of insomnia was before 40-years-old than when it was later in life. A positive family history was slightly higher when the insomnia complaint involved sleep-onset difficulties relative to sleep-maintenance or mixed insomnias. Although the present findings suggest that a positive family history of insomnia may be a potential risk factor for insomnia, it is unclear whether this reflects a genetic predisposition or a social learning phenomenon. (+info)
Chronic insomnia in workers poisoned by inorganic mercury: psychological and adaptive aspects.
Insomnia is one of the symptoms of inorganic mercury poisoning (IMP). The objective of this study is to analyze the chief psychological aspects in the adjustment of workers with chronic insomnia associated with IMP. For this purpose the Preventive Clinical Interview and the Ryad Simon Operational Adaptive Diagnostic Scale (Escala Diagnostica Adaptativa Operacionalizada-EDAO) were utilized. Fifteen subjects with mean age of 40 years (10 males and 5 females) were studied. Nine were diagnosed with High Adaptive Inefficacy, five with Moderate Inefficient Adaptation and only one with Mild Inefficient Adaptation. Impairment occurred in four adaptive sectors: affective relationship, social-cultural, productivity and organic. Adaptive efficiency indicated that in all the 15 subjects studied the adaptive solutions were frustrating and led to psychic suffering and/or environmental conflict confirming the severity of the involvement in chronic IMP. (+info)