Nutritional skin care: health effects of micronutrients and fatty acids.
Human skin is continuously exposed to internal and external influences that may alter its condition and functioning. As a consequence, the skin may undergo alterations leading to photoaging, inflammation, immune dysfunction, imbalanced epidermal homeostasis, or other skin disorders. Modern nutritional science is developing new insights into the relation between food intake and health, and effects of food ingredients may prove to be biologically relevant for optimal skin condition. The objective of this review was to evaluate the present knowledge about the interrelation of nutrients and skin, particularly the photoprotective effects of nutrients, the influences of nutrients on cutaneous immune responses, and therapeutic actions of nutrients in skin disorders. The nutrients of focus were vitamins, carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation with these nutrients was shown to provide protection against ultraviolet light, although the sun-protection factor was relatively small compared with that of topical sunscreens. An increase in delayed-type hypersensitivity skin responses after supplementation with nutrients has proven beneficial, especially in elderly people, and may boost cell-mediated immunity. Dietary consumption of certain plants or fish oil is known to modulate the balance of lipid inflammatory mediators and, therefore, is valuable in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. It was concluded that nutritional factors exert promising actions on the skin, but information on the effects of low-to-moderate doses of nutrients consumed long term by healthy individuals is obviously lacking, as are data on direct effects on basal skin properties, including hydration, sebum production, and elasticity. (+info)
Cystatin M/E expression is restricted to differentiated epidermal keratinocytes and sweat glands: a new skin-specific proteinase inhibitor that is a target for cross-linking by transglutaminase.
Using serial analysis of gene expression on cultured human keratinocytes we found high expression levels of genes putatively involved in host protection and defense, such as proteinase inhibitors and antimicrobial proteins. One of these expressed genes was the recently discovered cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin M/E that has not been characterized so far at the protein level with respect to tissue distribution and additional biologic properties. Here we report that cystatin M/E has a tissue-specific expression pattern in which high expression levels are restricted to the stratum granulosum of normal human skin, the stratum granulosum/spinosum of psoriatic skin, and the secretory coils of eccrine sweat glands. Low expression levels were found in the nasal cavity. The presence of cystatin M/E in skin and the lack of expression in a variety of other tissues was verified both at the protein level by immunohistochemistry or western blotting, and at the mRNA level by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or northern blotting. Using biotinylated hexapeptide probes we found that cystatin M/E is an efficient substrate for tissue type transglutaminase and for transglutaminases extracted from stratum corneum, and that it acts as an acyl acceptor but not as an acyl donor. Western blot analysis showed that recombinant cystatin M/E could be cross-linked to a variety of proteins extracted from stratum corneum. In vitro, we found that cystatin M/E expression in cultured keratinocytes is upregulated at the mRNA and protein level, upon induction of differentiation. We demonstrate that cystatin M/E, which has a putative signal peptide, is indeed a secreted protein and is found in vitro in culture supernatant and in vivo in human sweat by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or western blotting. Cystatin M/E showed moderate inhibition of cathepsin B but was not active against cathepsin C. We speculate that cystatin M/E is unlikely to be a physiologically relevant inhibitor of intracellular lysosomal cysteine proteinases but rather functions as an inhibitor of self and nonself cysteine proteinases that remain to be identified. (+info)
Sebocytes are the key regulators of androgen homeostasis in human skin.
The mRNA expression patterns of the androgen receptor and the androgen metabolizing enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5-4)-isomerase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 5alpha-reductase, and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were investigated in three different cell populations originating from human skin, SZ95 sebocytes, HaCaT keratinocytes, and MeWo melanoma cells, by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Restriction analysis of cDNA fragments was performed to identify isozymes of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5-4)-isomerase and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. In addition, 3H-dihydroepiandrosterone and 3H-testosterone were used as substrates to determine the metabolic activity of these enzymes in SZ95 sebocytes, primary sebocyte cultures, and HaCaT keratinocytes. Furthermore, the effects of the selective 5alpha-reductase type 1 and 2 inhibitors, 4,7beta-dimethyl-4-aza-5alpha-cholestan-3-one and dihydrofinasteride, respectively, and of the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5-4)-isomerase inhibitor cyproterone acetate on androgen metabolism were investigated. Androgen receptor mRNA was detected in SZ95 sebocytes and HaCaT keratinocytes but not in MeWo melanoma cells, whereas 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5-4)-isomerase isotype 1 mRNA and metabolic activity were only found in SZ95 sebocytes. The enzyme activity could be inhibited by cyproterone acetate. Type 2 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type 1 5alpha-reductase, and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA were expressed in all three cell populations tested, whereas type 3 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA could only be detected in SZ95 sebocytes. The major metabolic steps of testosterone in SZ95 sebocytes, primary sebocyte cultures, and HaCaT keratinocytes were its conversion to androstenedione by 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and further to 5alpha-androstanedione by 5alpha-reductase. The type 1 5alpha-reductase selective inhibitor 4,7beta-dimethyl-4-aza-5alpha-cholestan-3-one, but not the type 2 selective inhibitor dihydrofinasteride, inhibited 5alpha-reductase at low concentrations in SZ95 sebocytes and HaCaT keratinocytes. 5alpha-androstanedione was degraded to androsterone by 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which exhibited a stronger activity in HaCaT keratinocytes than in SZ95 sebocytes and in primary sebocyte cultures. Lower levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 5alpha-androstanediol were also detected in all cells tested. Our investigations show that specific enzyme expression and activity in cultured sebocytes and keratinocytes seem to allocate different duties to these cells in vitro. Sebocytes are able to synthesize testosterone from adrenal precursors and to inactivate it in order to maintain androgen homeostasis, whereas keratinocytes are responsible for androgen degradation. (+info)
Epsin 3 is a novel extracellular matrix-induced transcript specific to wounded epithelia.
Using an in vitro model of keratinocyte activation by the extracellular matrix following injury, we have identified epsin 3, a novel protein closely related to, but distinct from previously described epsins. Epsin 3 contains a domain structure common to this gene family, yet demonstrates novel differences in its regulation and pattern of expression. Epsin 3 mRNA and protein were undetectable in keratinocytes isolated from unwounded skin, but induced in cells following contact with fibrillar type I collagen. The native triple helical structure of collagen was required to mediate this response as cells failed to express epsin 3 when plated on gelatin. Consistent with the reported function of other epsins, epsin 3 was evident in keratinocytes as punctate vesicles throughout the cytoplasm that partially co-localized with clathrin. In addition, epsin 3 exhibited nuclear accumulation when nuclear export was inhibited. In contrast to other known epsins, epsin 3 was restricted to keratinocytes migrating across collagen and down-regulated following cell differentiation, suggesting that expression was spatially and temporally regulated. Indeed, epsin 3 was localized specifically to migrating keratinocytes in cutaneous wounds, but not found in intact skin. Intriguingly, Northern hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments indicated that epsin 3 expression was restricted to epithelial wounds or pathologies exhibiting altered cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Thus, we have identified a novel type I collagen-induced epsin that demonstrates structural and behavioral similarity to this gene family, yet exhibits restricted and regulated expression, suggesting that epsin 3 may serve an important function in activated epithelial cells during tissue morphogenesis. (+info)
Survey of joint mobility and in vivo skin elasticity in London schoolchildren.
A survey of joint mobility was conducted in 295 healthy children between the ages of 5 and 10 years who attended a London primary school. Estimates of the commonly used measurements, that is passive dorsiflexion of the wirsts and ankles, passive hypertension of the elbows and knee, were too insensitive to detect any age effect. However, a method of estimating extensibility of the 5th metacarpophalangeal joint in response to a standard load detected a highly significant inverse correlation between joint mobility and age in the samples significant inverse correlation between joint mobility and age in the samples tested ( r = -0.586; P less than 0.0001). There was no apparement sex difference. Skinfold thickness using the Harpenden caliper over the 3rd metacarpal bone and the in vivo skin elasticity measured using a suction cup device performed on a sample of 78 of the children revealed no influence of either age or sex on these parameters. This is in sharp contradistinction to the effect of both age and sex in these two parameters in adults... (+info)
Wound healing in man: tensile strength of healing wounds in some patient groups.
The healing of test wounds was studied in 108 patients, in whom some impairment of wound healing was suspected. A 5 cm skin wound was performed in the forearm and the strength of the wound was tested after 5 days using the technique described by Sandblom and associates with two measurements in each wound. No differences in wound strength could be registered between the two wounds in each patient, between males and females nor in patients with malignant disease compared to other patients. Patients with low serum protein or serum albumin values had significantly weaker wounds than patients with normal protein values. Patients over 80 years of age had wounds somewhat weaker than those below 70, the difference having a statistical significance of 6%. The wound strength in patients was compared to values found elsewhere for wounds in rabbits, rats, and piglets. The pigs had much higher values than others, rabbits slightly stronger than and rats about equal to humans. (+info)
Function and regulation of AP-1 subunits in skin physiology and pathology.
The mouse skin has become the model of choice to study the regulation and function of AP-1 subunits in many physiological and pathological processes in vivo and in vitro. Genetically modified mice, in vitro reconstituted skin equivalents and epidermal cell lines were established, in which AP-1-regulated genetic programs of cell proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis can be analysed. Since the epidermis, as our interface with the environment, is subjected to radiation and injury, signal transduction pathways and critical AP-1 members regulating the mammalian stress response could be identified. Regulated expression of important components of the cytokine network, cell surface receptors and proteases, which orchestrate the process of wound healing has been found to rely on AP-1 activity. Here we review our current knowledge on the function of AP-1 subunits and AP-1 target genes in these fascinating fields of skin physiology and pathology. (+info)
Complete cytolysis and neonatal lethality in keratin 5 knockout mice reveal its fundamental role in skin integrity and in epidermolysis bullosa simplex.
In human patients, a wide range of mutations in keratin (K) 5 or K14 lead to the blistering skin disorder epidermolysis bullosa simplex. Given that K14 deficiency does not lead to the ablation of a basal cell cytoskeleton because of a compensatory role of K15, we have investigated the requirement for the keratin cytoskeleton in basal cells by inactivating the K5 gene in mice. We report that the K5(-/-) mice die shortly after birth, lack keratin filaments in the basal epidermis, and are more severely affected than K14(-/-) mice. In contrast to the K14(-/-) mice, we detected a strong induction of the wound-healing keratin K6 in the suprabasal epidermis of cytolyzed areas of postnatal K5(-/-) mice. In addition, K5 and K14 mice differed with respect to tongue lesions. Moreover, we show that in the absence of K5 and other type II keratins, residual K14 and K15 aggregated along hemidesmosomes, demonstrating that individual keratins without a partner are stable in vivo. Our data indicate that K5 may be the natural partner of K15 and K17. We suggest that K5 null mutations may be lethal in human epidermolysis bullosa simplex patients. (+info)