Molecular interaction between Methylobacterium extorquens and seedlings: growth promotion, methanol consumption, and localization of the methanol emission site.
Four Methylobacterium extorquens strains were isolated from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Elsanta) leaves, and one strain, called ME4, was tested for its ability to promote the growth of various plant seedlings. Seedling weight and shoot length of Nicotiana tabacum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Sinapis alba, and Fragaria vesca increased significantly in the presence of the pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph (PPFM), but the germination behaviour of seeds from six other plants was not affected. The cell-free supernatant of the bacterial culture stimulated germination, suggesting the production of a growth-promoting agent by the methylotroph. Methanol emitted from N. tabacum seedlings, as determined by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ppbv (parts per billion by volume), while significantly lower levels (0.005 to 0.01 ppbv) of the volatile alcohol were measured when the seedlings were co-cultivated with M. extorquens ME4, demonstrating the consumption of the gaseous methanol by the bacteria. Additionally, by using cells of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris transformed with the pPICHS/GFP vector harbouring a methanol-sensitive promoter in combination with the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene, stomata were identified as the main source of the methanol emission on tobacco cotyledons. Methylobacterium extorquens strains can nourish themselves using the methanol released by the stomata and release an agent promoting the growth of the seedlings of some crop plants. (+info)
Head-neck domain of Arabidopsis myosin XI, MYA2, fused with GFP produces F-actin patterns that coincide with fast organelle streaming in different plant cells.