Connectin, an elastic protein from myofibrils.
The elastic protein isolated from myofibrils of chicken skeletal muscle was compared with extracellular non-collagenous reticulin prepared from chicken liver and skeletal muscle. The amino acid compositions of these proteins were similar except that their contents of Phe, Leu, Cys/2, and Hyp were different. The impregnations of the elastic protein and reticulin with silver were also different. The reticulin was not at all elastic. It also differed from reticulin in solubility and antigenicity. It is proposed to call the intracellular elastic protein connectin. (+info)
Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part I. New precious metal alloys with base metals for resin bonding.
New dental precious metal alloys for resin bonding without alloy surface modification were developed by adding base metals (In, Zn, or Sn). Before this, binary alloys of Au, Ag, Cu, or Pd containing In, Zn, or Sn were studied for water durability and bonding strength with 4-META resin. The adhesion ability of the binary alloys was improved by adding In equivalent to 15% of Au content, Zn equivalent to 20% of Ag content, and In, Zn, or Sn equivalent to 5% of Cu content. There was no addition effect of the base metals on Pd, however 15% of In addition improved adhesion with Pd-based alloys containing equi-atomic % of Cu and Pd. The alloy surfaces were analyzed by XPS and showed that oxides such as In2O3, ZnO, or SnO play an important role in improving the adhesive ability of the alloys. (+info)
Perineuronal nets of proteoglycans in the adult mouse brain, with special reference to their reactions to Gomori's ammoniacal silver and Ehrlich's methylene blue.
As our previous studies have indicated, many subsets of neurons in the vertebrate brain possess a sulfated proteoglycan surface coat which reacts to cationic iron colloid and aldehyde fuchsin. The present study demonstrated that this surface coat is supravitally stained with Ehrlich's methylene blue, and doubly with this blue and aldehyde fuchsin, a finding suggesting its being identical to Cajal's superficial reticulum (red superficial) and to Golgi's reticular coating (revetement reticulare). The perineuronal surface coat was further stained with Gomori's ammoniacal silver, and doubly with this silver and cationic iron colloid. These neurons with such a proteoglycan surface coat usually expressed cell surface glycoproteins which were labeled with lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin. Hyaluronidase digestion did not interfere with this lectin labeling of the glycoproteins, methylene blue and Gomori's ammoniacal silver staining of the surface coat, while it erased the cationic iron colloid and aldehyde fuchsin staining of the surface coat. These findings suggest that the perineuronal proteoglycan surface coat is associated with some additional molecules which are resistant to hyaluronidase digestion and stainable with methylene blue and Gomori's ammoniacal silver. The possibility is suggested that these molecules might represent "ligand proteoglycans" connecting the perineuronal proteoglycans and cell surface glycoproteins. (+info)
Modified hemoglobins produce venular interendothelial gaps and albumin leakage in the rat mesentery.
Cross-linked hemoglobin (alphaalpha-Hb) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated Hb have both been considered as possible "blood substitutes." Previously, we showed that PEG-Hb extravasates rapidly in the intestinal mucosa and causes transient epithelial sloughing, resulting in temporary opening of the intestinal epithelial barrier. In the present study, the rat mesenteric preparation was used to quantify the effects of the two Hbs on microvascular leakage to albumin and to investigate possible changes in the integrity of the interendothelial cell junctions and the endothelial actin cytoskeleton. In anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, the microvasculature of a mesenteric window was perfused with HEPES-buffered saline (HBS) containing 0.5 mg/ml BSA and 2 mg/ml alphaalpha-Hb (n = 16) or PEG-Hb (n = 5) for 2 or 10 min. Controls (n = 4) just received HBS-BSA. In some experiments (n = 9 for alphaalpha-Hb; n = 5 for PEG-Hb), the perfusate was then replaced by FITC-albumin in HBS-BSA for the next 3 min. The vasculature was then perfusion fixed, stained for filamentous actin and for mast cells, and viewed microscopically. In the remaining experiments, the mesenteric microvasculature was stained with silver nitrate to determine the number of endothelial junctional gaps per length of venules. Both Hbs increased the number and area of leaks per micrometer of venular length compared with control, but alphaalpha-Hb increased to a greater extent than PEG-Hb. Formation of leaks was accompanied by changes in the endothelial actin cytoskeleton and by an increased number of endothelial gaps. Mast cell degranulation was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in Hb-treated preparations compared with controls, but there was no direct correlation between sites of degranulation and albumin leakage. These Hbs appear to induce venular leakage in the mesentery by mechanisms similar to those previously observed after treatment with histamine or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. (+info)
One mechanism of silver resistance in microorganisms is accumulation of the metal ions in the cell. Here, we report on the phenomenon of biosynthesis of silver-based single crystals with well-defined compositions and shapes, such as equilateral triangles and hexagons, in Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259. The crystals were up to 200 nm in size and were often located at the cell poles. Transmission electron microscopy, quantitative energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and electron diffraction established that the crystals comprise at least three different types, found both in whole cells and thin sections. These Ag-containing crystals are embedded in the organic matrix of the bacteria. Their possible potential as organic-metal composites in thin film and surface coating technology is discussed. (+info)
Activities of a nitrofurazone-containing urinary catheter and a silver hydrogel catheter against multidrug-resistant bacteria characteristic of catheter-associated urinary tract infection.
The in vitro inhibitory activity of a nitrofurazone-coated urinary catheter (NFC) against 86 recently obtained susceptible and multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Enterococcus faecium, which are species implicated in catheter-associated urinary tract infection and which traditionally have been susceptible to nitrofuran derivatives, was determined using an agar diffusion assay. In a subset of these strains, the activity of the NFC was compared with that of a silver hydrogel urinary catheter (SHC), and the durability of each catheter's inhibitory activity was assessed during serial daily transfers of catheter segments to fresh culture plates. Except for vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, the NFC was active against all isolates tested and showed comparable inhibition zones with susceptible and MDR strains of each species. In contrast, the SHC inhibited only certain staphylococci (P < 0.01 versus the NFC), and among these strains, the SHC produced smaller inhibition zones than did the NFC (P < 0.01). Inhibition was evident for up to 5 days with the NFC, but for only 1 day (if at all) with the SHC (P < 0.01). These data document that, for most genera which traditionally have been susceptible to nitrofuran derivatives, the NFC remains active against contemporary MDR isolates. They also demonstrate that the in vitro antibacterial activity of the NFC is markedly superior to that of the SHC in several respects. Thus, the NFC shows promise for clinical use in the current era of MDR bacteria. (+info)
Four years of experience with silver-copper ionization for control of legionella in a german university hospital hot water plumbing system.
Silver-copper ionization was used for controlling Legionella distribution in a German university hospital hot water plumbing system for 4 years. In the beginning, silver concentrations were not allowed to exceed 10 microg/L because of drinking water regulation limits in Germany. Water samples were monitored for Legionella counts, temperature, and silver and copper concentrations. A significant (P<.001) 3.8-log reduction of Legionella counts, from 40, 000 cfu/L to 7 cfu/L, was found during the first year with silver-copper ionization. Nevertheless, the long-term efficacy of silver concentrations <10 ,++microg/L was not sufficient. Legionella counts increased to 10,000 cfu/L during the third year. During the fourth year, we studied the influence of higher silver concentrations on Legionella distribution. With an average silver level of 30 microg/L, only a 1.3-log reduction in Legionella, to 500 cfu/L, was achieved. The effect was not significant (P=.071); therefore, it must be considered that Legionella developed a tolerance to silver ions. (+info)
DNA cleavage activities of (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate with various kinds of metal ions.
The DNA cleavage activities of (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) were examined with 16 different metal ions. Cu(2+) with all the catechins facilitated DNA cleavage, while Ag+ with EGC and EC showed a strong repressive effect. The other metal ions examined showed little effect. (+info)