Microbial degradation of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane.
The microbial degradation of low-molecular-weight polydimethylsiloxanes was investigated through laboratory experiments. Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane was found to be biodegraded under anaerobic conditions in composted sewage sludge, as monitored by the occurrence of the main polydimethylsiloxane degradation product, dimethylsilanediol, compared to that found in experiments with sterilized control samples. (+info
Induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in female Fischer-344 rats following repeated inhalation exposure to decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).
Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is a cyclic siloxane with a wide range of commercial applications. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of D5 on the expression and activity of selected rat hepatic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. Female Fischer-344 rats were exposed to 160 ppm D5 vapors (6 h/day, 7 days/week, for 28 days) by whole-body inhalation. Changes in the activity and relative abundance of hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A), epoxide hydrolase, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) were measured. Repeated inhalation exposure of rats to D5 increased liver size by 16% relative to controls by day 28. During a 14-day post-exposure period, liver size in D5-exposed animals showed significant recovery. Exposure to D5 did not change total hepatic P450, but increased the activity of hepatic NADPH-cytochrome c reductase by 1.4-fold. An evaluation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from D5-exposed rats revealed a slight (1.8-fold) increase in 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, but no change in immunoreactive CYP1A1/2 protein. A moderate increase (4.2-fold) in both 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase (PROD) activity and immunoreactive CYP2B1/2 protein (3.3-fold) was observed. Testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity was also increased (2.4-fold) as was CYP3A1/2 immunoreactive protein. Although a small increase in 11- and 12-hydroxylation of lauric acid was detected, no change in immunoreactive CYP4A levels was measured. Liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity and immunoreactive protein increased 1.7- and 1.4-fold, respectively, in the D5-exposed group. UDPGT activity toward chloramphenicol was induced 1.8-fold, while no change in UDPGT activity toward 4-nitrophenol was seen. These results suggest that the profile for enzyme induction following inhalation exposure of female Fischer-344 rats to D5 vapors is similar to that reported for phenobarbital, and therefore D5 may be described as a weak "phenobarbital-like" inducer. (+info
Letter re: "Cyclosiloxanes produce fatal liver and lung damage in mice".
Comments on Lieberman's article: Cyclosiloxanes Produce Fatal Liver and Lung Damage in Mice. Environ Health Perspect 107:161-165 (+info
Identification of metabolites of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)) in rat urine.
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)) is an industrial chemical of significant commercial importance. In this study, its major urinary metabolites were identified. The urine samples described here were collected from male and female Fischer rats (F-344) administered [(14)C]D(4) i.v. The metabolite profile was obtained using an HPLC system equipped with a radioisotope detector. HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column, using an acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The HPLC radiochromatogram revealed two major and at least five minor metabolites. The two major metabolites, constituting 75 to 85% of the total radioactivity, were identified as dimethylsilanediol [Me(2)Si(OH)(2)] and methylsilanetriol [MeSi(OH)(3)]. Formation of MeSi(OH)(3) clearly established demethylation at the silicon-methyl bonds of D(4). No parent D(4) was present in urine. The minor metabolites identified were tetramethyldisiloxane-1,3-diol [Me(2)Si(OH)-O-Si(OH)Me(2)], hexamethyltrisiloxane-1,5-diol [Me(2)Si(OH)-OSiMe(2)-OSi(OH)Me(2)], trimethyldisiloxane-1,3,3-triol [MeSi(OH)(2)-O-Si(OH)Me(2)], dimethyldisiloxane-1,1,3,3-tetrol [MeSi(OH)(2)-O-Si(OH)(2)Me], and dimethyldisiloxane-1,1,1,3,3-pentol [Si(OH)(3)-O-Si(OH)(2)Me]. The structural assignments were based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the tetrahydrofuran metabolite extracts, which were derivatized using bis(trimethylsiloxy)triflouroacetamide, a trimethylsilylating agent. The structures were confirmed by synthesizing (14)C-labeled standards and comparing their HPLC radiochromatograms with the corresponding components in the rat urine. GC-MS spectral comparisons of the trimethylsilylated derivatized standards and urinary components also were made to further confirm their identities. Finally, several of the urinary metabolites were fractionated using HPLC, and GC-MS comparisons were again made for positive structural identification. The pathways for metabolite formation are not yet understood, but a mechanistic hypothesis has been proposed to account for the various metabolites observed thus far. (+info
Disposition of radioactivity in fischer 344 rats after single and multiple inhalation exposure to [(14)C]Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane ([(14)C]D(4)).
The retention, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [(14)C]octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)) were studied in Fischer 344 rats after single and multiple exposures to 7, 70, or 700 ppm [(14)C]D(4). Subset groups were established for body burden, distribution, and elimination. Retention of inhaled D(4) was relatively low (5-6% of inhaled D(4)). Radioactivity derived from [(14)C]D(4) inhalation was widely distributed to tissues of the rat. Maximum concentrations of radioactivity in plasma and tissues (except fat) occurred at the end of exposure and up to 3 h postexposure. Maximum concentrations of radioactivity in fat occurred as late as 24 h postexposure. Fat was a depot, elimination of radioactivity from this tissue was much slower than from plasma and other tissues. With minor exceptions, there were no consistent gender effects on the distribution of radioactivity and the concentrations of radioactivity were nearly proportional to exposure concentration over the exposure range. Excretion of radioactivity was via exhaled breath and urine, and, to a much lesser extent, feces. Urinary metabolites included dimethylsilanediol and methylsilanetriol plus five minor metabolites. Relative abundance of these metabolites was the same from every test group. Elimination was rapid during the first 24 h after exposure and was slower thereafter (measured up to 168 h postexposure). In singly-exposed female (but not male) rats, small dose-dependent shifts in elimination pathways were seen. After multiple exposures, the elimination pathways were dose- and gender-independent. These data define possible pathways for metabolism of D(4) and allow estimation of the persistence of D(4) and/or its metabolites in rats. (+info
Evaluation of a reproduction technique for the study of the enamel composite/bracket base area.
The objective of the study was to evaluate a reproduction method that would enable the study of the enamel/ bracket/composite interface in vivo, and consisted of in vitro assessment of two different impression materials to compare reproduction of brackets bonded to extracted teeth followed by in vivo assessment of the superior material. In vitro standard edgewise brackets were bonded to two extracted teeth and impressions were taken using two different types of low viscosity silicone-based impression materials. A medium viscosity silicone impression material was used to support the original impression. Three impressions of both the gingival and occlusal aspect of the bracket base region were obtained using each of the impression materials. Replicas were then prepared for SEM viewing and these compared to SEMs of the real teeth for reproduction of detail. A 3-point Reproducibility Index was used to compare the SEM photographs of the comparable replicas. One impression material was clearly superior to the other and produced an acceptably accurate representation of the true clinical situation in three out of four samples. This material also performed well in the in vivo situation. The technique described is satisfactory for the production and analysis of SEM pictures of the enamel/composite/ bracket base interface in vivo. (+info
Physiological modeling reveals novel pharmacokinetic behavior for inhaled octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane in rats.
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) is an ingredient in selected consumer and precision cleaning products. Workplace inhalation exposures may occur in some D4 production operations. In this study, we analyzed tissue, plasma, and excreta time-course data following D4 inhalation in Fischer 344 rats (K. Plotzke et al., 2000, Drug Metab. Dispos. 28, 192-204) to assess the degree to which the disposition of D4 is similar to or different from that of volatile hydrocarbons that lack silicone substitution. We first applied a basic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model (J. C. Ramsey and M. E. Andersen, 1984, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 73, 159-175) to characterize the biological determinants of D4 kinetics. Parameter estimation techniques indicated an unusual set of characteristics, i.e., a low blood:air (P(b:a) congruent with 0.9) and a high fat:blood partition coefficient (P(f:b) congruent with 550). These parameters were then determined experimentally by equilibrating tissue or liquid samples with saturated atmospheres of D4. Consistent with the estimates from the time-course data, blood:air partition coefficients were small, ranging from 1.9 to 6.9 in six samples. Perirenal fat:air partition coefficients were large, from 1400 to 2500. The average P(f:b) was determined to be 485. This combination of partitioning characteristics leads to rapid exhalation of free D4 at the cessation of the inhalation exposure followed by a much slower redistribution of D4 from fat and tissue storage compartments. The basic PK model failed to describe D4 tissue kinetics in the postexposure period and had to be expanded by adding deep-tissue compartments in liver and lung, a mobile chylomicron-like lipid transport pool in blood, and a second fat compartment. Model parameters for the refined model were optimized using single-exposure data in male and female rats exposed at three concentrations: 7, 70, and 700 ppm. With inclusion of induction of D4 metabolism at 700 ppm (3-fold in males, 1-fold in females), the parameter set from the single exposures successfully predicted PK results from 14-day multiple exposures at 7 and 700 ppm. A common parameter set worked for both genders. Despite its very high lipophilicity, D4 does not show prolonged retention because of high hepatic and exhalation clearance. The high lipid solubility, low blood:air partition coefficient, and plasma lipid storage with D4 led to novel distributional characteristics not previously noted for inhaled organic hydrocarbons. These novel characteristics were only made apparent by analysis of the time-course data with PBPK modeling techniques. (+info
Effects of polysiloxane coating of NaF on the release profile of fluoride ion from Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin containing NaF.
The aim of this study was to regulate fluoride release from restorative resin containing NaF using N-(beta-aminoethyl)-gamma-aminopropylmethyldimethoxysilane (AMMS) and evaluate factors that regulate fluoride release from the resin. ESCA analysis, FT-IR measurements along with SEM observations demonstrated that a polysiloxane layer was formed on the surface of NaF treated with AMMS. Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin containing NaF powder treated with AMMS released lower concentrations of fluoride for longer periods when compared with that containing untreated NaF. However, AMMS treatment of NaF was less effective for the regulation of fluoride released from the resin than gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (gamma-MPTS) treatment, despite its higher hydrophobic polysiloxane layer formation. These findings may have been caused by the higher density of polysiloxane prepared with gamma-MPTS than that prepared with AMMS. The present findings suggested, therefore, that alkoxysilane should be chosen based not only on hydrophobicity but also the density of polysiloxane to effectively regulate fluoride release from the restorative resin containing NaF. (+info