The right to be treated against her will.
... My sister's inconsistent and intermittent treatment over the past eight years is largely a result of her own indecision and the inconsistencies of her abnormal mental state. The professionals who might have taken control of the situation as her health and functioning deteriorated have not done so and I must presume that they believe they cannot do so. I do not think her case is unique. There are many more people living in the community who are severely ill and are being deprived of treatment they need. (+info)
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for thalassaemia major in Hong Kong: prognostic factors and outcome.
From August 1992 to August 1999, 44 patients received allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a single institution. The donors were HLA-identical siblings except for one who was a phenotypically matched father. Thirty-eight patients received bone marrow stem cells and the others received peripheral blood stem cells or umbilical cord blood (UCB). The mean age at transplant was 10.7+/-5.1 years, ranging from 1.8 to 21 years. Patients received busulphan (16 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (150 to 200 mg/kg) as conditioning, and antithymocyte globulin was given to 42 patients to prevent graft rejection. All had engraftment except a patient who received a UCB transplant. Four patients died from early treatment-related mortality, and one died from interstitial pneumonitis 3 months after transplant. Two patients developed secondary graft rejection and both received a second transplant. Thirty-eight patients survived and all except one were transfusion independent. The 5-year overall and event-free survival rates were 86% and 82%, respectively. By multivariate stepwise Cox proportional hazard analyses, severe veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of liver and Pesaro class 3 features were the significant factors associated with survival. Patients aged more than 11 years were more inclined to develop VOD. In conclusion, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be performed early if an HLA identical sibling is available. (+info)
Healthy sibling donor anxiety and pain during bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell harvesting for allogeneic transplantation: results of a randomised study.
This study reports the first comparison of healthy donor subjective well-being during two alternative procedures of hematopoietic stem cells harvesting for allogeneic transplantation. Among the 105 donors included between September 1996 and October 1998 in the SFGM French randomised trial aiming to compare allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation and blood cell (BC) transplantation, 64 donors (33 in BC and 31 in BM groups) were relevant for the analysis. They had received a set of self-administered questionnaires to complete during the collection process, aiming to measure anxiety (assessed using the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and pain induced by the procedure (evaluated using a visual analogical scale). Results showed that no harvest procedure is free from pain even if none was more painful than the other. Levels of anxiety before the collection procedure were high in both groups and significantly so for BC donors. Although BC collection induces at least similar levels of pain and anxiety as does BM collection, they were of a different kind, and the short-term impact of G-CSF stimulation on the well-being of BC donors has to be taken into account in improving quality of care in the allogeneic setting. (+info)
Myocarditis in sibling boxer puppies associated with Citrobacter koseri infection.
Two sibling Boxer puppies presented with severe suppurative myocarditis in the absence of additional disseminated suppurative foci. The identification of gram-negative bacteria within areas of myocarditis in both puppies and the pure growth of large numbers of Citrobacter koseri from the myocardial lesions in one of the dogs were consistent with a bacterial etiology. The fact that C. koseri is an opportunist pathogen suggested intercurrent immunosuppression. The finding of a concomitant bacterial myocarditis in two canine siblings is novel. The case is also unusual in that syncope could be related to the myocardial injury. (+info)
Familial risk of preeclampsia in Newfoundland: a population-based study.
This study sought to quantify the familial risk of preeclampsia (proteinuric hypertension) in Newfoundland and to identify characteristics in probands that predict increased familial risk. Reviewed were 5173 obstetric charts from 10 hospitals, representing 99% of deliveries on the island of Newfoundland for a 1-yr period from April 1996 to March 1997; pregnancy-induced hypertension was diagnosed according to strict criteria. Family obstetric histories were obtained from identified probands with preeclampsia, and sisters and mothers of probands were interviewed. In addition, the obstetric charts from sisters and mothers were reviewed to identify preeclampsia. The incidence of preeclampsia in the population was 5.6% (n = 292), and in primiparous women it was 7.9%. Factors independently associated with increased risk of preeclampsia included primiparous delivery, multiple gestation, pregestational and gestational diabetes, maternal age of more than 35 yr, and region of the province. Of 330 sisters identified, 217 had 445 pregnancies, with 331 charts located for review. The incidence of preeclampsia (based on chart review) in 163 primiparous sisters was 20.2%. The relative risk of preeclampsia in primiparous sisters of probands with preeclampsia compared with primiparous women in the population was 2.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 3.6). Factors in probands independently associated with a higher risk of preeclampsia in sisters included at least 2+ proteinuria and region of the province. This population-based study, which used unbiased ascertainment and strict diagnostic criteria, demonstrated a significantly higher risk of preeclampsia in sisters of probands with preeclampsia, particularly when probands were defined by severity of preeclampsia and by geographic region. (+info)
Genetic heterogeneity in schizophrenia II: conditional analyses of affected schizophrenia sibling pairs provide evidence for an interaction between markers on chromosome 8p and 14q.
Information from multiple genome scans and collaborative efforts suggests that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous, complex disorder with polygenic and environmental antecedents. In a previous paper we demonstrated that stratification of families on the basis of co-segregating phenotypes (psychotic affective disorders (PAD) and schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders (SSPD) in first-degree relatives of schizophrenic probands increased linkage evidence in the chromosome 8p21 region (D8S1771) among families with co-segregating SSPD. We have now applied a method of conditional analysis of sib-pairs affected with schizophrenia, examining shared alleles identical-by-descent (IBD) at multiple loci. The method yields enhanced evidence for linkage to the chromosome 8p21 region conditioned upon increased allele sharing at a chromosome 14 region. The method produces a more refined estimate of the putative disease locus on chromosome 8p21, narrowing the region from 18 cM (95% confidence interval) in our previous genome scan, to approximately 9.6 cM. We have also shown that the affected siblings sharing two alleles IBD at the chromosome 8p21 region and one allele IBD at the chromosome 14 region differ significantly in clinical symptoms from non-sharing affected siblings. Thus the analysis of allele sharing at a putative schizophrenia susceptibility locus conditioned on allele sharing at other loci provides another important method for dealing with heterogeneity. (+info)
Reciprocal bone marrow transplantation between brother and sister.
A child with AML underwent allogeneic BMT from an HLA-identical sister donor. Prompt and stable triline-age engraftment occurred and after few months he returned to a normal life. Eight years later a primary NHL of bone developed in his sister. A partial remission was obtained by means of standard NHL treatment, but 3 months later rapid disease progression occurred with complete bone marrow invasion (ALL-L3). She was treated with a leukemia relapse protocol, obtaining a second partial remission. Unpurged bone marrow harvested from the brother, transplanted for AML 8 years earlier, was infused after conditioning with TBI and thiothepa. No GVHD prophylaxis was given. Neutrophil engraftment occurred by 14 days and platelet engraftment by 20 days after BMT. No acute GVHD was observed, but unexpectedly she developed skin and liver GVHD-like symptoms 80 days after BMT. Since the liver biopsy was suggestive of liver GVHD and in the absence of any other evidence as a possible cause of the hepatic damage, the patient started mycophenolate. Two months later serum hepatitis B markers were detectable. (+info)
Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism associates with graft-versus-host disease and survival in HLA-matched sibling allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
We investigated the role of polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in HLA-matched sibling BMT for polymorphisms previously associated with human disease pathology. In intron 8 of the VDR gene, the B and A alleles of the BsmI and ApaI RFLPs were found to associate with reduced aGVHD when present in the patient's genotype. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patient VDR genotype, along with previously identified IL-10(-1064) and IFN-gamma genotype to be risk factors for severe acute GVHD. The A allele also associates with increased likelihood of death when present in the donor genotype (AA vs Aa or aa, hazard ratio 2.03, P = 0.0232). In patients who received increased prophylaxis with multi-agent therapy, patients whose graft was from a donor with an AA genotype had a substantially worse survival than patients whose graft was from a donor with a non-AA genotype (hazard ratio 12.93, P < 0.0001). Analysis of VDR genotype in prospective BMT recipients could indicate patients at risk of severe aGVHD. Analysis of VDR genotype in prospective BMT donors may identify individuals who have greater transplant-related mortality, and also allow appropriately restricted use of increased immunosuppressive prophylaxis. (+info)