(1/2476) Myocardial osteopontin expression coincides with the development of heart failure.
To identify genes that are differentially expressed during the transition from compensated hypertrophy to failure, myocardial mRNA from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with heart failure (SHR-F) was compared with that from age-matched SHR with compensated hypertrophy (SHR-NF) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) by differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Characterization of a transcript differentially expressed in SHR-F yielded a cDNA with homology to the extracellular matrix protein osteopontin. Northern analysis showed low levels of osteopontin mRNA in left ventricular myocardium from WKY and SHR-NF but a markedly increased (approximately 10-fold) level in SHR-F. In myocardium from WKY and SHR-NF, in situ hybridization showed only scant osteopontin mRNA, primarily in arteriolar cells. In SHR-F, in situ hybridization revealed abundant expression of osteopontin mRNA, primarily in nonmyocytes in the interstitial and perivascular space. Similar findings for osteopontin protein were observed in the midwall region of myocardium from the SHR-F group. Consistent with the findings in SHR, osteopontin mRNA was minimally increased (approximately 1.9-fold) in left ventricular myocardium from nonfailing aortic-banded rats with pressure-overload hypertrophy but was markedly increased (approximately 8-fold) in banded rats with failure. Treatment with captopril starting before or after the onset of failure in the SHR reduced the increase in left ventricular osteopontin mRNA levels. Thus, osteopontin expression is markedly increased in the heart coincident with the development of heart failure. The source of osteopontin in SHR-F is primarily nonmyocytes, and its induction is inhibited by an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, suggesting a role for angiotensin II. Given the known biological activities of osteopontin, including cell adhesion and regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression, these data suggest that it could play a role in the pathophysiology of heart failure. (+info)
(2/2476) An intramembrane modulator of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase that potentiates neuregulin signaling.
The ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays a critical role in a variety of developmental processes, and its aberrant activation may contribute to the progression of some breast and ovarian tumors. ASGP2, a transmembrane glycoprotein found on the surface of the highly metastatic ascites 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line, is constitutively associated with ErbB2 in these cells and in mammary tissue from pregnant rats. Expression studies indicate that ASGP2 interacts directly and specifically with ErbB2 through one of its epidermal growth factor-like domains and that the co-expression of the two proteins in the same cell dramatically facilitates their direct stable interaction. Ectopic expression of ASGP2 in human melanoma tumor cells potentiates the response of endogenous ErbB2 to the neuregulin-1 growth factor. These observations point to a novel intramembrane mechanism for the modulation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity. (+info)
(3/2476) Angiosarcomas express mixed endothelial phenotypes of blood and lymphatic capillaries: podoplanin as a specific marker for lymphatic endothelium.
Angiosarcomas apparently derive from blood vessel endothelial cells; however, occasionally their histological features suggest mixed origin from blood and lymphatic endothelia. In the absence of specific positive markers for lymphatic endothelia the precise distinction between these components has not been possible. Here we provide evidence by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry that podoplanin, a approximately 38-kd membrane glycoprotein of podocytes, is specifically expressed in the endothelium of lymphatic capillaries, but not in the blood vasculature. In normal skin and kidney, podoplanin colocalized with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, the only other lymphatic marker presently available. Complementary immunostaining of blood vessels was obtained with established endothelial markers (CD31, CD34, factor VIII-related antigen, and Ulex europaeus I lectin) as well as podocalyxin, another podocytic protein that is also localized in endothelia of blood vessels. Podoplanin specifically immunolabeled endothelia of benign tumorous lesions of undisputed lymphatic origin (lymphangiomas, hygromas) and was detected there as a 38-kd protein by immunoblotting. As paradigms of malignant vascular tumors, poorly differentiated (G3) common angiosarcomas (n = 8), epitheloid angiosarcomas (n = 3), and intestinal Kaposi's sarcomas (n = 5) were examined for their podoplanin content in relation to conventional endothelial markers. The relative number of tumor cells expressing podoplanin was estimated and, although the number of cases in this preliminary study was limited to 16, an apparent spectrum of podoplanin expression emerged that can be divided into a low-expression group in which 0-10% of tumor cells contained podoplanin, a moderate-expression group with 30-60% and a high-expression group with 70-100%. Ten of eleven angiosarcomas and all Kaposi's sarcomas showed mixed expression of both lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial phenotypes. By double labeling, most podoplanin-positive tumor cells coexpressed endothelial markers of blood vessels, whereas few tumor cells were positive for individual markers only. From these results we conclude that (1) podoplanin is a selective marker of lymphatic endothelium; (2) G3 angiosarcomas display a quantitative spectrum of podoplanin-expressing tumor cells; (3) in most angiosarcomas, a varying subset of tumor cells coexpresses podoplanin and endothelial markers of blood vessels; and (4) all endothelial cells of Kaposi's sarcomas expressed the lymphatic marker podoplanin. (+info)
(4/2476) Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism and coronary artery disease.
BACKGROUND: Cytokine gene variations are contributory factors in inflammatory pathology. Allele frequencies of interleukin (IL)-1 cluster genes [IL-1A(-889), IL-1B(-511), IL-1B(+3953), IL-1RN Intron 2 VNTR] and tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha gene [TNFA(-308)] were measured in healthy blood donors (healthy control subjects), patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries (patient control subjects), single-vessel coronary disease (SVD), and those with multivessel coronary disease (MVD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Five hundred fifty-six patients attending for coronary angiography in Sheffield were studied: 130 patient control subjects, 98 SVD, and 328 MVD. Significant associations were tested in an independent population (London) of 350: 57 SVD, 191 MVD, and 102 control subjects. IL-1RN*2 frequency in Sheffield patient control subjects was the same as in 827 healthy control subjects. IL-1RN*2 was significantly overrepresented in Sheffield SVD patients (34% vs 23% in patient control subjects); IL-1RN*2 homozygotes in the SVD population (chi2 carriage=8.490, 1 df, P=0.0036). This effect was present though not quite significant in the London population (P=0. 0603). A summary trend test of the IL-1RN SVD genotype data for Sheffield and London showed a significant association with *2 (P=0. 0024). No significant effect of genotype at IL-1RN was observed in the Sheffield or London MVD populations. Genotype distribution analysis comparing the SVD and MVD populations at IL-1RN showed a highly significant trend (P=0.0007) with the use of pooled data. No significant associations were seen for the other polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: IL-1RN*2 was significantly associated with SVD. A difference in genetic association between SVD and MVD was also apparent. (+info)
(5/2476) A sialoglycoprotein, gp20, of the human capacitated sperm surface is a homologue of the leukocyte CD52 antigen: analysis of the effect of anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody (CAMPATH-1) on capacitated spermatozoa.
In this study we performed N-terminal sequence analysis of gp20, a 20 kDa sialoglycoprotein on the human sperm surface previously identified by radiolabelling of the sialic acid residues of sperm surface. We found 100% identity with the N-terminus of CD52, an antigen expressed on almost all human leukocytes. We also show that, like CD52, gp20 behaves as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and that anti-gp20 antiserum reacts with an antigen on leukocytes of the same molecular weight as CD52. Using CAMPATH-1, the monoclonal antibody against CD52, in fluorescent staining of capacitated spermatozoa, Western blot analysis and the zona-free hamster egg penetration test, we found that the effect of this antibody was different from that of our anti-gp20. Western blot analysis revealed a well-defined 20 kDa band with anti-gp20, whereas a 14-20 kDa band was detected with CAMPATH-1. Anti-gp20 stained the equatorial region of the sperm head, whereas CAMPATH-1 stained the tail in immunofluorescence analysis of capacitated spermatozoa. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect was seen with CAMPATH-1, similar to that previously detected with anti-gp20, in a zona-free hamster egg penetration test. However, with CAMPATH-1 agglutination of motile spermatozoa was detected, and this was not present with anti-gp20. This suggests that the epitopes recognized by the two antibodies are different. (+info)
(6/2476) Core 2-containing O-glycans on CD43 are preferentially expressed in the memory subset of human CD4 T cells.
Human CD4 T cells can be divided into two functionally distinct subsets: a CD45RO+ memory subset and a CD45RA+ naive subset. In an attempt to identify novel cell surface molecules on these cells, we have developed a mAb, anti-1D4. The antigen defined by anti-1D4 was preferentially expressed on the memory subset of freshly isolated peripheral CD4 T cells and 1D4+ CD4 T cells functionally corresponded to memory T cells. Retrovirus-mediated expression cloning revealed that the 1 D4 antigen is human CD43. Transfection of CHO-leu cells, which stably express human CD43, with core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT) conferred expression of the 1D4 antigen and mRNA of C2GnT was detected by RT-PCR only in 1D4+ T cells but not in 1D4- T cells, implying that the 1 D4 antigen is composed of core 2-containing O-glycans on CD43. Reactivity with anti-1 D4 was completely abolished when cells were treated with neuraminidase, while them remained weak binding of anti-T305, a previously described mAb which also reacts with CD43 modified with core 2-containing O-glycans. Moreover, anti-1D4 markedly reacted with NIH-3T3 cells expressing human CD43 and low levels of endogenous C2GnT, whereas anti-T305 reacted slightly. These results indicate that the 1D4 antigen is distinct from the epitope defined by anti-T305 and anti-1D4 is a more sensitive probe to detect core 2-containing O-glycans than anti-T305. Taken together, our results indicate that core 2-containing O-glycans, whose expression can easily be detected with anti-1D4, are preferentially expressed in the CD45RO+ memory subset of CD4 T cells. (+info)
(7/2476) Constitutive expression of interleukin-1alpha precursor promotes human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation plays a critical role in the failure of vascular surgeries and contributes to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Evidence that interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a mitogen for cultured VSMC has implicated its release by activated macrophages in the development of atherosclerosis. VSMC also produce IL-1, including the precursor form of IL-1alpha. However, it is not known whether IL-1alpha precursor is processed to mature IL-1alpha or released from VSMC, nor is it known whether either precursor or mature IL-1alpha functions as an autocrine growth factor. The goals of the present study were to establish whether proliferation is enhanced in human VSMC transfectants producing IL-1alpha constitutively at levels comparable to those produced after activation, and to determine which domains of IL-1alpha are important for its activity. Human VSMC were stably transfected with expression vectors directing constitutive expression of either full-length IL-1alpha precursor [IL-1alpha-(1-271)], its NH2-terminal domain [IL-1alpha-(1-112)], or mature IL-1alpha [IL-1alpha-(113-271)]. Both IL-1alpha-(1-271) and IL-1alpha-(113-271) stable transfectants produced moderate levels of IL-1alpha (0.2-1.0 ng/10(6) cells) and released low levels of IL-1alpha into the supernatant (<20 pg/ml). VSMC stably transfected with either IL-1alpha-(1-271) or IL-1alpha-(113-271) expression plasmids proliferated rapidly compared with nontransfected or vector-transfected VSMC and displayed a distinct morphology characterized by elongated, spindle-shaped cells. Stable transfection with IL-1alpha-(1-271) was somewhat more effective than transfection with IL-1alpha-(113-271). Interestingly, VSMC transfected with IL-1alpha-(113-271) expression plasmids also expressed IL-1alpha-(1-271) mRNA, suggesting that IL-1alpha-(113-271) activates an IL-1-induced IL-1 autocrine loop. In contrast, neither proliferation rates nor morphology was affected by stable transfection with IL-1alpha-(1-112) expression plasmids. Exogenous IL-1 receptor antagonist partially reversed the enhanced DNA synthesis in VSMC transfected with either IL-1alpha-(1-271) or IL-1alpha-(113-271) expression plasmids, suggesting that the pro-proliferative effect of VSMC-derived IL-1alpha is at least partially mediated by signaling via the type I IL-1 receptor. These results demonstrate that IL-1alpha precursor is an autocrine growth factor for human VSMC and further indicate that amino acids 113-271 play a crucial role in its actions. (+info)
(8/2476) Acute-phase responses in transgenic mice with CNS overexpression of IL-1 receptor antagonist.
The interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is an endogenous antagonist that blocks the effects of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta by occupying the type I IL-1 receptor. Here we describe transgenic mice with astrocyte-directed overexpression of the human secreted IL-1ra (hsIL-1ra) under the control of the murine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Two GFAP-hsIL-1ra strains have been generated and characterized further: GILRA2 and GILRA4. These strains show a brain-specific expression of the hsIL-1ra at the mRNA and protein levels. The hsIL-1ra protein was approximated to approximately 50 ng/brain in cytosolic fractions of whole brain homogenates, with no differences between male and female mice or between the two strains. Furthermore, the protein is secreted, inasmuch as the concentration of hsIL-1ra in the cerebrospinal fluid was 13 (GILRA2) to 28 (GILRA4) times higher in the transgenic mice than in the control animals. To characterize the transgenic phenotype, GILRA mice and nontransgenic controls were injected with recombinant human IL-1beta (central injection) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, peripheral injection). The febrile response elicited by IL-1beta (50 ng/mouse icv) was abolished in hsIL-1ra-overexpressing animals, suggesting that the central IL-1 receptors were occupied by antagonist. The peripheral LPS injection (25 micrograms/kg ip) triggered a fever in overexpressing and control animals. Moreover, no differences were found in LPS-induced (100 and 1,000 micrograms/kg ip; 1 and 6 h after injection) IL-1beta and IL-6 serum levels between GILRA and wild-type mice. On the basis of these results, we suggest that binding of central IL-1 to central IL-1 receptors is not important in LPS-induced fever or LPS-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 plasma levels. (+info)