(1/615) Acute systematic and variable postural adaptations induced by an orthopaedic shoe lift in control subjects.

A small leg length inequality, either true or functional, can be implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous spinal disorders. The correction of a leg length inequality with the goal of treating a spinal pathology is often achieved with the use of a shoe lift. Little research has focused on the impact of this correction on the three-dimensional (3D) postural organisation. The goal of this study is to quantify in control subjects the 3D postural changes to the pelvis, trunk, scapular belt and head, induced by a shoe lift. The postural geometry of 20 female subjects (X = 22, sigma = 1.2) was evaluated using a motion analysis system for three randomised conditions: control, and right and left shoe lift. Acute postural adaptations were noted for all subjects, principally manifested through the tilt of the pelvis, asymmetric version of the left and right iliac bones, and a lateral shift of the pelvis and scapular belt. The difference in the version of the right and left iliac bones was positively associated with the pelvic tilt. Postural adaptations were noted to vary between subjects for rotation and postero-anterior shift of the pelvis and scapular belt. No notable differences between conditions were noted in the estimation of kyphosis and lordosis. The observed systematic and variable postural adaptations noted in the presence of a shoe lift reflects the unique constraints of the musculoskeletal system. This suggests that the global impact of a shoe lift on a patient's posture should also be considered during treatment. This study provides a basis for comparison of future research involving pathological populations.  (+info)

(2/615) Isolated and combined lesions of the axillary nerve. A review of 146 cases.

We have assessed the final strength of the deltoid in 121 patients who had repair of isolated or combined lesions of the axillary (circumflex) nerve and were available for statistical analysis. Successful or useful results were achieved in 85% after grafting of isolated lesions. The strength was statistically better when patients had grafting of the axillary nerve within 5.3 months from the time of injury. The dramatic decrease in the rate of success seen with longer delays suggests that surgery should be undertaken within three months of injury. A statistically significant downward trend of the rate of success was noted with increasing age. The force and level of injury to the shoulder play an important role in the type, combination and level of nerve damage and the incidence of associated rotator-cuff, vascular and other injuries to the upper limb. Management of isolated and combined lesions of the axillary nerve after injury to the shoulder needs to be thorough and systematic.  (+info)

(3/615) Atypical form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate patients with an unusual type of muscular atrophy confined to the upper limbs (proximally dominant) and the shoulder girdle, while sparing the face and the legs until the terminal stage. METHODS: Eight patients (six men and two women) were clinically examined. The age at onset ranged from 42 to 73 years, and the clinical course varied from 28 to 81 months. There was no family history of motor neuron disease in any of these patients. Necropsy was performed in two of them. RESULTS: All eight patients basically showed a similar distribution of muscular weakness and atrophy. Subluxation of the shoulder joints was found in all patients. Reflexes were absent in the upper limbs in all patients, but were almost normal in the face and legs in most patients. Pathological reflexes could be elicited in only one patient. Electromyography showed typical neurogenic changes in the limbs of all patients. Cervical MRI disclosed moderate spondylotic changes in seven patients. Antiganglioside antibodies were negative in six patients tested. Abnormal trinucleotide (CAG) repeat expansion of androgen receptor gene was not recognised in five patients examined. Bulbar involvement developed in three patients during the course of the disease. At necropsy, one patient showed degeneration of the pyramidal tracts and motor cortex including Betz cells as well as loss of spinal anterior horn cells and brainstem motor neurons, which is consistent with ALS; in another patient there was neuronal loss of anterior horn cells at the spinal cord accompanied by astrogliosis, whereas the motor cortex and brainstem motor nuclei were relatively well preserved. Intracytoplasmic inclusions such as Bunina bodies, skein-like inclusions, and Lewy body-like inclusions were found in both patients. CONCLUSION: These patients with their peculiar pattern of muscular atrophy seem to have ALS or a subtype of ALS.  (+info)

(4/615) Case report. Recovery of shoulder movement in patients with complete axillary nerve palsy.

Classical anatomical teaching suggests that the deltoid muscle is the main abductor of the shoulder. We present three cases of proven complete paralysis of the deltoid with an almost full range of movement of the shoulder owing to the compensatory action of accessory muscles. The mechanisms by which this occurs are described.  (+info)

(5/615) Ultrasound therapy for calcific tendinitis of the shoulder.

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Although ultrasound therapy is used to treat calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, its efficacy has not been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a randomized, double-blind comparison of ultrasonography and sham insonation in patients with symptomatic calcific tendinitis verified by radiography. Patients were assigned to receive 24 15-minute sessions of either pulsed ultrasound (frequency, 0.89 MHz; intensity, 2.5 W per square centimeter; pulsed mode, 1:4) or an indistinguishable sham treatment to the area over the calcification. The first 15 treatments were given daily (five times per week), and the remainder were given three times a week for three weeks. Randomization was conducted according to shoulders rather than patients, so a patient with bilateral tendinitis might receive either or both therapies. RESULTS: We enrolled 63 consecutive patients (70 shoulders). Fifty-four patients (61 shoulders) completed the study. There were 32 shoulders in the ultrasound-treatment group and 29 in the sham-treatment group. After six weeks of treatment, calcium deposits had resolved in six shoulders (19 percent) in the ultrasound-treatment group and decreased by at least 50 percent in nine shoulders (28 percent), as compared with respective values of zero and three (10 percent) in the sham-treatment group (P=0.003). At the nine-month follow-up visit, calcium deposits had resolved in 13 shoulders (42 percent) in the ultrasound-treatment group and improved in 7 shoulders (23 percent), as compared with respective values of 2 (8 percent) and 3 (12 percent) in the sham-treatment group (P=0.002). At the end of treatment, patients who had received ultrasound treatment had greater decreases in pain and greater improvements in the quality of life than those who had received sham treatment; at nine months, the differences between the groups were no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with symptomatic calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, ultrasound treatment helps resolve calcifications and is associated with short-term clinical improvement.  (+info)

(6/615) The long-term course of shoulder complaints: a prospective study in general practice.

OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the long-term course of shoulder complaints in patients in general practice with special focus on changes in diagnostic category and fluctuations in the severity of the complaints. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Four general practices in The Netherlands. METHOD: All patients (101) with shoulder complaints seen in a 5 month period were included. Assessment took place 26 weeks and 12-18 months after inclusion in the study with a pain questionnaire and a physical examination. RESULTS: A total of 51% of the patients experienced (mostly recurrent) complaints after 26 weeks and 41% after 12-18 months. Diagnostic changes were found over the course of time, mostly from synovial disorders towards functional disorders of the structures of the shoulder girdle, but also the other way round. Although 52 of the 101 patients experienced complaints in week 26, 62% of those patients considered themselves 'cured'. After 12-18 months, 51% of the 39 patients experiencing complaints felt 'cured'. CONCLUSION: Many patients seen with shoulder complaints in general practice have recurrent complaints. The nature of these complaints varies considerably over the course of time, leading to changes in diagnostic category. Because of the fluctuating severity of the complaints over time, feeling 'cured' or not 'cured' is also subject to change over time.  (+info)

(7/615) Injuries to riders in the cross country phase of eventing: the importance of protective equipment.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the distribution of injuries in the eventing discipline of equestrian sports and the effectiveness of the protective equipment worn. METHODS: Data on all injuries sustained in the cross country phase over fixed obstacles were collected from 54 days of competition from 1992 to 1997. This involved 16,940 rides. RESULTS: Data on a total of 193 injuries were collected, which included two deaths. This represents an injury rate of 1.1%. Head and facial injuries represented the largest group (31%), with one third of these requiring treatment in hospital. All riders were wearing protective helmets and body protectors. CONCLUSIONS: Eventing is one of the most dangerous equestrian sports. Improved protective equipment, which is mandatory for 1999, should reduce the severity of these injuries.  (+info)

(8/615) Monosynaptic Ia pathways at the cat shoulder.

1. The study aimed to describe in cat forelimb and shoulder motoneurones the convergence and projection patterns from large muscle spindle afferents (Ia). In 11 chloralose-anaesthetized cats maximum Ia EPSPs evoked by electrical stimulation of ipsilateral forelimb nerves were obtained in 309 intracellularly recorded alpha-motoneurones. 2. Groups of motor nuclei displayed similar Ia patterns. As in the distal forelimb they were often interconnected by bidirectional pathways, which were used to combine Ia synergistic groups. Three such groups are described at the shoulder. 3. The first group was composed of the main flexors of the scapulo-humeral joint. Regular disto-proximal Ia excitation from elbow extensors (and median afferents) indicates a coupling of flexion in the scapulo-humeral joint to the angular position of the elbow. 4. The second group comprised the outward rotators of the humerus with differentiated Ia convergence onto the different group members. The patterns of Ia excitation received and sent by the group members demonstrate that the outward rotators are incorporated in versatile synergisms and may occupy a central position in steering forelimb movements. 5. The third group was formed by the spinatus muscle and the subscapularis. This arrangement is suggested by the common convergence onto them from the elbow extensors and flexors. The pattern may serve to guide and keep the humeral head in the joint capsule. 6. The Ia synergistic groups receive Ia convergence from muscles acting at distant joints and also project to distant muscles. This is discussed as part of an extended pattern of Ia connections along the forelimb. In this way the shoulder muscles would be incorporated in flexor and extensor oriented synergisms which are needed to co-ordinate the muscular activation along the multijoint forelimb during locomotion. When the shoulder Ia pathways are compared with those in the distal forelimb, organization of the Ia system apparently follows a few basic principles which have adapted to the mechanical situation at the particular joints and their mechanical interaction.  (+info)