Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture.
Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method. (+info)
Predicting insecticide resistance: mutagenesis, selection and response.
Strategies to manage resistance to a particular insecticide have usually been devised after resistance has evolved. If it were possible to predict likely resistance mechanisms to novel insecticides before they evolved in the field, it might be feasible to have programmes that manage susceptibility. With this approach in mind, single-gene variants of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, resistant to dieldrin, diazinon and malathion, were selected in the laboratory after mutagenesis of susceptible strains. The genetic and molecular bases of resistance in these variants were identical to those that had previously evolved in natural populations. Given this predictive capacity for known resistances, the approach was extended to anticipate possible mechanisms of resistance to cyromazine, an insecticide to which L. cuprina populations remain susceptible after almost 20 years of exposure. Analysis of the laboratory-generated resistant variants provides an explanation for this observation. The variants show low levels of resistance and a selective advantage over susceptibles for only a limited concentration range. These results are discussed in the context of the choice of insecticides for control purposes and of delivery strategies to minimize the evolution of resistance. (+info)
Potential value of major antigenic protein 2 for serological diagnosis of heartwater and related ehrlichial infections.
Cowdria ruminantium is the etiologic agent of heartwater, a disease causing major economic loss in ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Development of a serodiagnostic test is essential for determining the carrier status of animals from regions where heartwater is endemic, but most available tests give false-positive reactions with sera against related Erhlichia species. Current approaches rely on molecular methods to define proteins and epitopes that may allow specific diagnosis. Two major antigenic proteins (MAPs), MAP1 and MAP2, have been examined for their use as antigens in the serodiagnosis of heartwater. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if MAP2 is conserved among five geographically divergent strains of C. ruminantium and (ii) to determine if MAP2 homologs are present in Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the organism responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis. These two agents are closely related to C. ruminantium. The map2 gene from four strains of C. ruminantium was cloned, sequenced, and compared with the previously reported map2 gene from the Crystal Springs strain. Only 10 nucleic acid differences between the strains were identified, and they translate to only 3 amino acid changes, indicating that MAP2 is highly conserved. Genes encoding MAP2 homologs from E. canis and E. chaffeensis also were cloned and sequenced. Amino acid analysis of MAP2 homologs of E. chaffeensis and E. canis with MAP2 of C. ruminantium revealed 83.4 and 84.4% identities, respectively. Further analysis of MAP2 and its homologs revealed that the whole protein lacks specificity for heartwater diagnosis. The development of epitope-specific assays using this sequence information may produce diagnostic tests suitable for C. ruminantium and also other related rickettsiae. (+info)
Performance of competitive and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, gel immunoprecipitation with native hapten polysaccharide, and standard serological tests in diagnosis of sheep brucellosis.
Competitive and standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), rose bengal (RB), complement fixation, and agar gel immunoprecipitation with native hapten (AGID-NH) were compared by using sera from Brucella-free, Brucella melitensis-infected, and B. melitensis Rev1-vaccinated sheep. The most sensitive tests were indirect ELISA and RB, and the most specific tests were AGID-NH and competitive ELISA. We show that RB followed by AGID-NH is a simple and effective system for diagnosing sheep brucellosis. (+info)
Evaluation of modified BACTEC 12B radiometric medium and solid media for culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from sheep.
Definitive diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants depends on confirming the presence of the causative bacterium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, in tissues of the host. This is readily achieved in most ruminant species by culture. However, culture of clinical specimens from sheep in many countries has been unrewarding. Such a culture from sheep was achieved recently in Australia by using a radiometric culture medium. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the culture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from sheep by using modified BACTEC 12B radiometric medium, to determine the sensitivity of culture in relation to histopathology, and to evaluate a range of solid media. Culture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from sheep with Johne's disease is a sensitive method of diagnosis: intestinal tissues from all 43 animals with multibacillary disease and all 22 animals with paucibacillary disease were culture positive, while 98% of feces from 53 animals with multibacillary disease and 48% of feces from 31 animals with paucibacillary disease were culture positive. Of sheep without histological evidence of Johne's disease from infected flocks, intestinal tissue from 32% of 41 were culture positive, while feces from 17% of 41 were culture positive. Consequently, culture is recommended as the "gold standard" test for detection of ovine Johne's disease. Of the wide range of solid media that were evaluated, only modified Middlebrook 7H10 and 7H11 agars, which were very similar in composition to modified BACTEC 12B medium, yielded growth of ovine strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The sensitivity of detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on solid media was slightly lower than that in modified BACTEC 12B radiometric medium. Both egg yolk and mycobactin J were essential additives for growth of ovine strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in both liquid and solid media. (+info)
Human echinococcosis in Bulgaria: a comparative epidemiological analysis.
The present article describes the importance of human echinococcosis as a public health problem in Bulgaria, outlines the control measures carried out and evaluates comparatively the situation over three periods spanning 46 years (1950-1995). During the first period (1950-62), a total of 6469 new surgically confirmed cases of hydatid disease were recorded in Bulgaria, with an annual incidence of 6.5 per 100,000 population, and the infestation rate in domestic animals and dogs was high. Echinococcosis was endemic throughout the country. The organization of a control campaign, initiated in 1960, led to a considerable improvement in the situation during the second period (1971-82). Morbidity among humans gradually decreased, with an average incidence of 2.0 per 100,000, and the proportion of infected animals also fell. The distribution of echinococcosis was characterized as sporadic or of low endemicity. During the third period (1983-95), owing to administrative irregularities and economic changes, funds for supporting the campaign were reduced and control structures were dismantled. As a result, the incidence rose to 3.3 per 100,000. Echinococcosis again became endemic, in some regions hyperendemic. The findings provide convincing evidence that cessation of control measures or reduction of campaign activity can lead to intensification in the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus and to a resurgence in echinococcosis to previous levels. (+info)
Vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with leucine aminopeptidase induces high levels of protection against fascioliasis in sheep.
The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with CL2 (81%). The second trial was performed to determine the protective potential of the two cathepsin L proteinases assayed together, as well as in combination with LAP, and of LAP alone. The combination of CL1 and CL2 induced higher levels of protection (60%) than those produced when these enzymes were administered separately. Those sheep that received the cocktail vaccine including CL1, CL2, and LAP were significantly protected (78%) against metacercarial challenge, but vaccination with LAP alone elicited the highest level of protection (89%). All vaccine preparations induced high immunoglobulin G titers which were boosted after the challenge infection, but no correlations between antibody titers and worm burdens were found. However, the sera of those animals vaccinated with LAP contained LAP-neutralizing antibodies. Reduced liver damage, as assessed by the level of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase, was observed in the groups vaccinated with CL1, CL2, and LAP or with LAP alone. (+info)
Selenium toxicosis in a flock of Katahdin hair sheep.
Selenium supplementation by injection is a common practice. Acute toxicosis from dosaging errors may occur. In this report, 23 of 56 ewes and all 24 lambs injected with selenium died. Tissue, whole blood, and serum concentrations aided in the diagnosis. Caution should be taken when supplementing selenium by injection. (+info)