The structlre of pili (fimbriae) of Moraxella bovis.
Cells from rough and smooth colonies of Moraxella bovis were examined by electron microscopy utilizing both shadowing and thin sectioning techniques. Pili were found on the surfaces of cells from rough but not smooth colonies. Pili had a peritrichoud distribution and appeared as delicate (6.5-8.5 nm in diameter), elongated unbranched filaments. When bacteria were sectioned pili did not contain central pores and appeared to originate from opacities on the surface of the cell wall. (+info)
Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture.
Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method. (+info)
Effect of trauma on plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations in sheep.
Portal plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations were measured before and after acute trauma (liver biosy). The trauma was sufficient to increase glucagon concentrations and depress insulin concentrations. These changes were associated with a marked hyperglycemia. Infusion of glucagon was insufficient to prevent stress inhibition of insulin secretion. The stimulation of glucagon secretion and inhibition of insulin secretion were of about one hour duration. These findings indicate that glucagon and insulin in conjunction with the nervous system may play an important role in the development of stress related hyperglycemia. (+info)
Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep.
The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin. (+info)
Values of three coagulation screening tests of precolostral calves.
Prothrombin times, partial thromboplastin times and platelet counts were performed to determine normal values and to screen for coagulation defects of precolostral calves. The precolostral calves were in two groups: one group of a few calves was tested two years before the second larger group. The results for both groups were similar. The tests were performed on postcolostral calves and on mature cows to compare their values with those of precolostral calves. The mean values of prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times of precolostral calves in the first group were 18.8 seconds and 54.8 seconds respectively. The mean values of prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times of precolostral calves in the second group were 18.8 seconds and 50.8 seconds respectively. The mean platelet count was 422,400/cmm for the first group and 482,800/cmm for the second group. (+info)
Twelfth rib resection as an approach for portal vein cannulation in sheep.
A surgical technique involving resection of the twelfth rib was used to insert silastic cannulas into the portal veins of three sheep to study amino acid metabolism. Good exposure to the vein was achieved by this method although it required positive ventilation due to the penetration of the thoracic cavity. All cannulas were buried subcutaneously and exteriorized near the dorsal midline. This facilitated continuous infusion into the portal cannula without disturbing cannula placement. (+info)
Predicting insecticide resistance: mutagenesis, selection and response.
Strategies to manage resistance to a particular insecticide have usually been devised after resistance has evolved. If it were possible to predict likely resistance mechanisms to novel insecticides before they evolved in the field, it might be feasible to have programmes that manage susceptibility. With this approach in mind, single-gene variants of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, resistant to dieldrin, diazinon and malathion, were selected in the laboratory after mutagenesis of susceptible strains. The genetic and molecular bases of resistance in these variants were identical to those that had previously evolved in natural populations. Given this predictive capacity for known resistances, the approach was extended to anticipate possible mechanisms of resistance to cyromazine, an insecticide to which L. cuprina populations remain susceptible after almost 20 years of exposure. Analysis of the laboratory-generated resistant variants provides an explanation for this observation. The variants show low levels of resistance and a selective advantage over susceptibles for only a limited concentration range. These results are discussed in the context of the choice of insecticides for control purposes and of delivery strategies to minimize the evolution of resistance. (+info)
Complete nucleotide sequence of the 27-kilobase virulence related locus (vrl) of Dichelobacter nodosus: evidence for extrachromosomal origin.
The vrl locus is preferentially associated with virulent isolates of the ovine footrot pathogen, Dichelobacter nodosus. The complete nucleotide sequence of this 27.1-kb region has now been determined. The data reveal that the locus has a G+C content much higher than the rest of the D. nodosus chromosome and contains 22 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding products including a putative adenine-specific methylase, two potential DEAH ATP-dependent helicases, and two products with sequence similarity to a bacteriophage resistance system. These ORFs are all in the same orientation, and most are either overlapping or separated by only a few nucleotides, suggesting that they comprise an operon and are translationally coupled. Expression vector studies have led to the identification of proteins that correspond to many of these ORFs. These data, in combination with evidence of insertion of vrl into the 3' end of an ssrA gene, are consistent with the hypothesis that the vrl locus was derived from the insertion of a bacteriophage or plasmid into the D. nodosus genome. (+info)