Genetic examination of the putative skull of Jan Kochanowski reveals its female sex.
We report the results of genetic examination of the putative skull of Jan Kochanowski (1530-1584), a great Polish renaissance poet. The skull was retrieved in 1791 by historian Tadeusz Czacki from the Kochanowski family tomb and became the property of the Czartoryskis Museum in Krakow. An anthropological study in 1926 questioned its male origin, which raised doubts about its authenticity. Our report presents genetic evidence that resolves this dispute. From the sole tooth we obtained a sufficient amount of DNA to perform the analysis of nuclear markers. The analysis of the sex-informative part of intron 1 in amelogenin, genotyped using AmpFiSTR(R) NGM PCR Amplification Kit and Powerplex(R) ESI17 Kit human identification systems, revealed the female origin of the tooth. The female origin was further confirmed by the analysis of a portion of amelogenin intron 2, a microsatellite marker located on the X chromosome, as well as by a lack of signal from Y chromosomal microsatellite markers and the sex-determining region Y marker. Data obtained for two hypervariable regions, HVI and HVII, in mitochondrial DNA showed that mtDNA haplotype was relatively frequent among contemporary Europeans. The analysis of a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms relevant for prediction of the iris color indicated an 87% probability that the woman had hazel or brown eye color. (+info)
Rugae patterns as an adjunct to sex differentiation in forensic identification.
It is widely acknowledged that in some forensic situations there are limitations to identification of the deceased by fingerprints, DNA and dental records. Palatal rugae pattern of an individual may be considered as a useful adjunct for sex determination for identification purposes. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the rugae pattern in Indian males and females, as an additional method of differentiating the sexes in various postmortem scenarios. Dental stone casts of 120 Indians: 60 males and 60 females were obtained. The method of identification of rugae patterns was that of Thomas and Kotze (1983) and Kapali et al (1997) which includes the number, length, shape and unification of rugae. Our study revealed no significant difference in the total number or various length measurements of rugae between the two sexes which conforms to previous results. However, in terms of the different types of rugae shape, the converging type of rugae were statistically greater in number in females whilst the circular type of rugae were statistically greater in number in males, which contrasts with earlier studies. The use of logistic regression analysis (LRA) enabled highly accurate sex prediction (>99%) when all the rugae shapes were analyzed. It may be concluded that rugae pattern through the use of LRA can be an additional method of differentiation between the Indian male and female and assist with the identification process in conjunction with other methods such as visual, fingerprints and dental characteristics in forensic sciences. (+info)
Evaluation of foramen magnum in gender determination using helical CT scanning.
Incidence of clavicular rhomboid fossa (impression for costoclavicular ligament) in the Brazilian population: forensic application.
In the last years, anthropology has been widely explored mainly when related to bones due to its morphologic characteristics, such as the rhomboid fossa of the clavicle. This study examined the incidence of the rhomboid fossa in paired clavicles of Brazilian subjects obtained from 209 adult bodies of known age and sex (107 males and 102 females) on which postmortem examinations had been performed by the senior author. The data were submitted to qualitative statistical analysis according to Fisher. There was a statistical difference (p= 5.98 x 10-23) between sexes related to the frequency of the rhomboid fossa. The fossa was absent in 97,1% of the female clavicles and the incidence of bilateral fossa was present in 2,9% of females. The incidence of bilateral fossa was 29% for male clavicles. The sexual or side differences in the incidence of the fossa could be found in this study, and qualitative analysis can corroborate sex determination of unidentified bodies in forensic medicine. (+info)
Sex determination by linear measurements of palatal bones and skull base.
Genetically determined sexual dimorphism is not restricted to reproductive organs. All body structures show sexual differences which emerge during puberty and persist lifelong. The aim of this study is to obtain a reliable method for sex determination through the analysis of linear measurements of palate bones and skull base. One hundred skulls of both sexes, 50 from males and 50 from females, aged between 22 and 55 years, from the Sao Goncalo Cemetery of Cuiaba, capital of Mato Grosso state, Brazil, were analyzed. Distances between the incisive foramen, right and left greater palatine foramens and the basion were measured with a digital caliper. Finally, data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Measurements showed significant sexual dimorphism, except the distance between the right and the left greater palatine foramens. The superior expression of sex dimorphism corresponded to the distance from the basion to the incisive foramen. The authors obtained two mathematical models for sex determination, with a reliability rate of 63% and 65% respectively. (+info)
An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Goring.
Sexual dimorphism in Brazilian human skulls: discriminant function analysis.
Many anthropological studies have shown that sex can be determined using the human skeleton, especially by examining the pelvis and skull. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of sexual dimorphism in the Brazilian population by craniometric analysis; to identify the most reliable measurements and to propose a discriminant function for sex determination. The selected sample was composed of 100 adult skulls, 50 male and 50 female, from Cuiaba city, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Of all the measurements taken, only the difference between the bi-euryon distances has proven insignificant, while themost dimorphic measure was the bi-zygomatic diameter. A discriminant function was obtained by applying the bi-zygomatic and the basion-lambda measurements, with a confidence level of 72%. The authors concluded that most of the traits analyzed are sexually dimorphic and the discriminant function elaborated is reliable for sex determination in human identification for forensic purposes. (+info)