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(1/41) ARX, a novel Prd-class-homeobox gene highly expressed in the telencephalon, is mutated in X-linked mental retardation.

Investigation of a critical region for an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) locus led us to identify a novel Aristaless related homeobox gene (ARX ). Inherited and de novo ARX mutations, including missense mutations and in frame duplications/insertions leading to expansions of polyalanine tracts in ARX, were found in nine familial and one sporadic case of MR. In contrast to other genes involved in XLMR, ARX expression is specific to the telencephalon and ventral thalamus. Notably there is an absence of expression in the cerebellum throughout development and also in adult. The absence of detectable brain malformations in patients suggests that ARX may have an essential role, in mature neurons, required for the development of cognitive abilities.  (+info)

(2/41) X chromosome dosage by quantitative fluorescent PCR and rapid prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies.

During the past few years, rapid prenatal diagnosis of chromosome aneuploidies has been successfully achieved by quantitative fluorescent PCR (QF-PCR) amplification of chromosome-specific small tandem repeats (STR). This approach has proven to be very useful in clinical settings, since it allows the detection of major numerical disorders in a few hours after sampling. For the detection of Turner's syndrome (45,X), several highly polymorphic STR on the X chromosome are needed in order to reduce the likelihood that a normal female might be homozygous for all sequences and, consequently, that the test could fail to discriminate between samples retrieved from a Turner's and a normal female fetus. Here we report a new method for rapid and accurate detection of X chromosome copy number in prenatal samples that does not depend on STR heterozygosity. The test is based on QF-PCR amplification of the X-linked HPRT together with the autosomal D21S1411 used as internal control for quantification. In the course of this study, this assay allowed the prenatal diagnosis of a rare case of a normal female homozygous for four selected highly polymorphic X chromosome STR, as well as the assessment of the normal chromosome complement of a fetus homozygous for five chromosome 21 markers.  (+info)

(3/41) Reproductive genetic counselling in non-mosaic 47,XXY patients: implications for preimplantation or prenatal diagnosis: Case report and review.

With an incidence of approximately 1 in 500 male newborns, the 47,XXY genotype is one the most common sex chromosome anomalies. It is also the most frequent genetic cause of human infertility. Some non-mosaic 47,XXY patients have sperm production which allows infertility treatment to be offered by ICSI. Therefore, the risk of transmitting a chromosome anomaly to the next generation is an important problem in reproductive genetic counselling of these patients. Here, we report on a twin pregnancy where two karyotypically normal neonates 46,XX and 46,XY were born after the use of ICSI in assisted reproduction of a patient with a non-mosaic 47,XXY syndrome. To date, only 38 evolving pregnancies including the present cases, have been reported after ICSI using sperm from non-mosaic 47,XXY patients. Although these data are scarce, they suggest that the risk of chromosome anomaly in the offspring of these patients is low; hence, their reproductive genetic counselling can be reassuring, and management of the pregnancy can proceed with caution.  (+info)

(4/41) The genetic basis of infertility.

Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after one year of regular unprotected intercourse; approximately one in six couples wishing to start a family fall into this category. Although, in many cases, the diagnosis is simply 'unexplained', a variety of reasons including lack of ovulation, mechanical stoppage, sperm deficiencies and parental age have been implicated. It is difficult to assess accurately the overall magnitude of the contribution of genetics to infertility as most, if not all, conditions are likely to have a genetic component, for example susceptibility to infection. Nevertheless, a significant number of infertility phenotypes have been associated with specific genetic anomalies. The genetic causes of infertility are varied and include chromosomal abnormalities, single gene disorders and phenotypes with multifactorial inheritance. Some genetic factors influence males specifically, whereas others affect both males and females. For example, chromosome translocations affect both males and females, whereas Klinefelter syndrome and the subsequent infertility phenotype caused by it are specific to males. This article reviews current research in the genetic basis of infertility; gender-specific disorders and those affecting both sexes are considered.  (+info)

(5/41) Rapid and simple prenatal diagnosis of common chromosome disorders: advantages and disadvantages of the molecular methods FISH and QF-PCR.

Molecular techniques have been developed for prenatal diagnosis of the most common chromosome disorders (trisomies 21, 13, 18 and sex chromosome aneuploidies) where results are available within a day or two. This involves fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microscopy analysis of fetal cells or quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) on fetal DNA. Guidance is provided on the technological pitfalls in setting up and running these methods. Both methods are reliable, and the risk for misdiagnosis is low, although slightly higher for FISH. FISH is also more labour intensive than QF-PCR, the latter lending itself more easily to automation. These tests have been used as a preamble to full chromosome analysis by microscopy. However, there is a trend to apply the tests as 'stand-alone' tests for women who are at relatively low risk of having a baby with a chromosome disorder, in particular that associated with advanced age or results of maternal serum screening programmes. These women comprise the majority of those currently offered prenatal diagnosis with respect to fetal chromosome disorders and if introduced on a larger scale, the use of FISH and QF-PCR would lead to substantial economical savings. The implication, on the other hand, is that around one in 500 to one in 1000 cases with a mentally and/or physically disabling chromosome disorder would remain undiagnosed.  (+info)

(6/41) A case of 49,XXXXX in which the extra X chromosomes were maternal in origin.

This report describes an 11 month old female baby with features of pentasomy X. A molecular and cytogenetic evaluation revealed that her karyotype was 49,XXXXX and her extra X chromosomes were of maternal origin. She has muscular hypotonia, mental retardation, a cleft palate, mild hydrocephalus as a result of dilatation of both lateral ventricles, hyperextensible elbow joints, proximal radioulnar synostosis, clinodactyly of the fifth finger, valgus of the feet, and small hands and feet. In addition, she has a persistent pupillary membrane and congenital chorioretinal atrophy. The pathogenesis of pentasomy X is not clear at present, but it is thought to be caused by successive maternal non-dysjunctions.  (+info)

(7/41) 49, XXXXY syndrome.

49, XXXXY syndrome is a rare sex chromosomal disorder. A 5-month-old boy had failure to thrive and multiple congenital anomalies including microcephaly, facial dysmorphism (hypertelorism, megacornea, cleft palate, and micrognathia), obvious heart murmur, umbilical hernia, microphallus, and mild clenched hands. Chromosomal studies via techniques of G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed the constitution to be 47, XXXXY in all cells. Ventriculomegaly and congenital cardiac defects (patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, and peripheral pulmonary stenosis) were noted. He has severe atopic dermatitis with high IgE levels and psychomotor retardation. After heart surgery and nutritional support, he has better growth and the rehabilitation program is continuing.  (+info)

(8/41) Fate of SRY, PABY, DYS1, DYZ3 and DYZ1 loci in Indian patients harbouring sex chromosomal anomalies.

We analysed chromosomes, conducted hormonal assays and screened genomic DNA of 34 patients with or without detectable Y chromosome for the presence/absence of SRY, PABY, DYS1, DYZ3 and DYZ1 loci and for mutations in the SRY gene. The samples studied represented cases of oligozoospermia, cryptorchidism, Swyer syndrome, Turner syndrome, male pseudohermaphroditism, XXY female syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, repeated abortion and instances of male infertility. Chromosomal constitutions and the level of hormones (FSH, LH, PRL, E2 and TSH) were found to be abnormal in several cases. A phenotypic female (P20) positive for all the Y-linked loci screened, showed mutations upstream of the HMG box in the SRY gene. In addition, one or more of the Y-linked loci were detected in several phenotypic females. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei of an aborted fetus with DYZ1 probe detected signals from normal to low levels to its complete absence confirming a complex Y chromosome mosaicism. Upon DNA analysis, the fetus was found to be positive for all the above-mentioned Y-linked loci. Organizational variation within the DYZ1 arrays and its correlation with recurrent spontaneous abortion may be followed-up in subsequent studies to substantiate this observation. This would augment genetic counselling to the affected couples. Prospects of this approach in the overall management of clinical cases with sex chromosome-related anomalies are discussed.  (+info)