Transport of solutes through cartilage: permeability to large molecules.
A review of the transport of solutes through articular cartilage is given, with special reference to the effect of variations in matrix composition. Some physiological implications of our findings are discussed. Also, results of an experimental study of the permeability of articular cartilage to large globular proteins are presented. Because of the very low partition coefficients of large solutes between cartilage and an external solution new experimental techniques had to be devised, particularly for the study of diffusion. The partition coefficients of solutes were found to decrease very steeply with increase in size, up to serum albumin. There was, however, no further decrease for IGG. The diffusion coefficient of serum albumin in cartilage was relatively high (one quarter of the value in aqueous solution). These two facts taken together suggest that there may be a very small fraction of relatively large pores in cartilage through which the transport of large molecules is taking place. The permeability of cartilage to large molecules is extremely sensitive to variations in the glycosaminoglycan content: for a threefold increase in the latter there is a hundredfold decrease in the partition coefficient. For cartilage of fixed charge density around 0-19 m-equiv/g, there is no penetration at all of globular proteins of size equal to or larger than serum albumin. (+info)
Decreased anion gap associated with monoclonal and pseudomonoclonal gammopathy.
Nine patients with monoclonal and one with pseudomonoclonal gammopathy were found to have a decreased anion gap. Eight of the patients had multiple myeloma, one has plasma cell leukemia and one had chronic active hepatitis. In all of the the decreased anion gap was associated with an increased concentration of IgG greater than 5 g/dl. (+info)
Fibrinolytic properties of activated FXII.
Activated factor XII (FXIIa), the initiator of the contact activation system, has been shown to activate plasminogen in a purified system. However, the quantitative role of FXIIa as a plasminogen activator in contact activation-dependent fibrinolysis in plasma is still unclear. In this study, the plasminogen activator (PA) activity of FXIIa was examined both in a purified system and in a dextran sulfate euglobulin fraction of plasma by measuring fibrinolysis in a fibrin microtiter plate assay. FXIIa was found to have low PA activity in a purified system. Dextran sulfate potentiated the PA activity of FXIIa about sixfold, but had no effect on the PA activity of smaller fragments of FXIIa, missing the binding domain for negatively charged surfaces. The addition of small amounts of factor XII (FXII) to FXII-deficient plasma induced a large increase in contact activation-dependent PA activity, as measured in a dextran sulfate euglobulin fraction, which may be ascribed to FXII-dependent activation of plasminogen activators like prekallikrein. When more FXII was added, PA activity continued to increase but to a lesser extent. In normal plasma, the addition of FXII also resulted in an increase of contact activation-dependent PA activity. These findings suggested a significant contribution of FXIIa as a direct plasminogen activator. Indeed, at least 20% of contact activation-dependent PA activity could be extracted from a dextran sulfate euglobulin fraction prepared from normal plasma by immunodepletion of FXIIa and therefore be ascribed to direct PA activity of FXIIa. PA activity of endogenous FXIIa immunoadsorped from plasma could only be detected in the presence of dextran sulfate. From these results it is concluded that FXIIa can contribute significantly to fibrinolysis as a plasminogen activator in the presence of a potentiating surface. (+info)
alpha2-macroglobulin- and murinoglobulin-1- deficient mice. A mouse model for acute pancreatitis.
Mice deficient in either or both mouse alpha2-macroglobulin (MAM) and murinoglobulin-1 (MUG1) were generated and proved phenotypically normal under standard conditions. Acute pancreatitis was induced with a diet deficient in choline and methionine, supplemented with ethionine. The mortality was less than 25% in wild-type mice, as opposed to at least 56% in knockout mice, and was highest (70%) in MAM-/- mice, with earliest onset at 2 days. Plasma amylase and lipase levels were increased, but pancreatic tissue appeared histologically variable in individual mice. The clinical symptoms were most severe in MAM-/- mice and, surprisingly, were not aggravated in the double knockout mice, suggesting that the lack of proteinase inhibition capacity was not the major problem. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of 21 different cytokines and polypeptide factors in the pancreas of all experimental groups of mice. Interleukin-1-receptor antagonist mRNA was consistently induced by the diet in the pancreas of MAM-/- mice, and transforming growth factor-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-beta, beta-lymphotoxin, and interferon-gamma mRNA levels were also increased. The data demonstrate the important role of alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) in acute pancreatitis as both a proteinase inhibitor and a cytokine carrier. Mice deficient in MAM and/or MUG thus offer new experimental models for defining in vivo the role of the macroglobulins in pancreatitis and in other normal and pathological processes. (+info)
Association of plasma IgM with body size, histopathologic changes, and plasma chemistries in adult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi.
Pacific herring Clupea pallasi immunoglobulin is an IgM-like molecule comprised of heavy and light chains with molecular weights of 79 and 25 to 27 kD, respectively. Purified immunoglobulin was used to generate highly specific polyclonal antibodies for development of a sandwich ELISA. The ELISA was used to quantify total plasma IgM in 602 Pacific herring captured in Prince William Sound and Sitka Sound, Alaska, USA. Plasma IgM concentrations ranged from 0.13 to 5.32 mg ml-1. Using multiple stepwise regression analysis, plasma IgM was highly correlated (p < or = 0.01) with body length, Ichthyophonus hoferi infection, plasma albumin, plasma cholesterol, liver macrophage aggregates, and focal skin reddening. I. hoferi was the only organism significantly associated with plasma IgM. Gender, site, and season (spring vs fall) did not contribute to significant differences in plasma IgM. This study contributes to the understanding of the interaction of body size, plasma chemistries, and pathological changes upon circulating immunoglobulins in fish. (+info)
Enhanced anti-influenza activity of a surfactant protein D and serum conglutinin fusion protein.
We previously demonstrated that bovine serum conglutinin has markedly greater ability to inhibit influenza A virus (IAV) infectivity than other collectins. We now show that recombinant conglutinin and a chimeric protein containing the NH(2) terminus and collagen domain of rat pulmonary surfactant protein D (rSP-D) fused to the neck region and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of conglutinin (termed SP-D/Cong(neck+CRD)) have markedly greater ability to inhibit infectivity of IAV than wild-type recombinant rSP-D, confirming that the potent IAV-neutralizing activity of conglutinin resides in its neck region and CRD. Furthermore, by virtue of incorporation of the NH(2) terminus and collagen domain of SP-D, SP-D/Cong(neck+CRD) caused substantially greater aggregation of IAV particles and enhancement of neutrophil binding of, and H(2)O(2) responses to, IAV than recombinant conglutinin or recombinant rSP-D. Hence, SP-D/Cong(neck+CRD) combined favorable antiviral and opsonic properties of conglutinin and SP-D. This study demonstrates an association of specific structural domains of SP-D and conglutinin with specific functional properties and illustrates that antimicrobial activities of wild-type collectins can be enhanced through recombinant strategies. (+info)
Identical or overlapping sequences in the primary structure of human alpha(2)-macroglobulin are responsible for the binding of nerve growth factor-beta, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and transforming growth factor-beta.
alpha(2)-Macroglobulin (alpha(2)M) functions as a proteinase inhibitor and as a carrier of diverse growth factors. In this study, we localized binding sites for platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and nerve growth factor-beta (NGF-beta) to a linear sequence in the 180-kDa human alpha(2)M subunit which includes amino acids 591-774. A glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing amino acids 591-774 (FP3) bound PDGF-BB and NGF-beta in ligand blotting assays whereas five other fusion proteins, which collectively include amino acids 99-590 and 775-1451 did not. The K(D) values for PDGF-BB and NGF-beta binding to immobilized FP3 were 300 +/- 40 and 180 +/- 30 nM, respectively; these values were comparable with those determined using methylamine-modified alpha(2)M, suggesting that higher-order alpha(2)M structure is not necessary for PDGF-BB and NGF-beta binding. PDGF-BB and NGF-beta blocked the binding of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) to FP3. Furthermore, murinoglobulin, which is the only known member of the alpha-macroglobulin family that does not bind TGF-beta, also failed to bind PDGF-BB and NGF-beta. These results support the hypothesis that either a single linear sequence in human alpha(2)M or overlapping sequences are responsible for the binding of TGF-beta, PDGF-BB, and NGF-beta, even though there is minimal sequence identity between these three growth factors. FP3 blocked the binding of PDGF-BB to a purified chimeric protein, in which the extracellular domain of the PDGF beta receptor was fused to the IgG(1) Fc domain, and to PDGF receptors on NIH 3T3 cells. Thus, FP3 may inhibit the activity of PDGF-BB. (+info)
Photoaffinity glycoprobes-a new tool for the identification of lectins.
One of the proposed functions for the carbohydrate structures on glycoconjugates is the transfer of information through interaction with specific lectin receptors. However, the number of elucidated functional lectin-carbohydrate interactions is still relatively small, largely due to the lack of adequate methods to identify lectin activity in complex biological samples. Aiming to solve this problem, we have developed a method based on the novel group of compounds we named glycoprobes. The glycoprobe consists of three vital parts: (1) glycan, (2) digoxin tag, and (3) photoreactive crosslinker. When incubated in dark, oligosaccharide part of the glycoprobe forms a complex with lectin. After illumination, covalent link between the probe and the lectin is formed resulting in a digoxin-tagged lectin. Using antibodies against digoxin, this complex can easily be identified immuno/cytochemically, or by Western blots. To demonstrate the applicability of glycoprobes we have used Man(9)-glycoprobe (containing Man(9)oligosaccharide) and YEE(ahGalNAc)(3)-glycoprobe (containing a synthetic neoglycopeptide with three terminal N-acetyl-galactosamine residues; Lee and Lee, Glycoconjugate J., 1987,4, 317) to identify lectins in bovine serum and rat liver membranes. The simplicity of the method enables its application in routine monitoring of changes in lectin activity during various developmental or pathological processes. An example of GalNAc-binding analysis in human serum is shown. (+info)