Negative immunoregulatory effects of antidepressants: inhibition of interferon-gamma and stimulation of interleukin-10 secretion.
There is now some evidence that major depression is accompanied by activation of the inflammatory response system. There is also some evidence that antidepressants may suppress the release of cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 by activated monocytes and IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) by activated T cells. This study was carried out to examine the effects of clomipramine, sertraline, and trazodone on the stimulated production of IFN gamma, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and IL-10, a negative immunoregulatory cytokine. Whole blood of nine healthy volunteers was stimulated with PHA, 5 micrograms/mL and LPS, 25 micrograms/mL for 72 hr with and without incubation with clomipramine, 10(-6) and 10(-9) M, sertraline, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M, and trazodone, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M. All three antidepressants significantly reduced IFN gamma secretion, whereas clomipramine and sertraline significantly increased IL-10 secretion in culture supernatant. All three antidepressants significantly reduced the IFN gamma/IL-10 ratio. The results suggest that antidepressants, at concentrations in the therapeutical range, have negative immunoregulatory effects through inhibition of IFN gamma and stimulation of IL-10 release. (+info)
The Norwegian naturalistic treatment study of depression in general practice (NORDEP)-I: randomised double blind study.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of emotional support and counselling combined with placebo or antidepressants with single or dual mechanism of action in the treatment of depression in primary care. DESIGN: Randomised double blind study. SETTING: Several locations in Norway. SUBJECTS: 372 patients with depression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Improvement (clinical remission) reported both by the patient (Montgomery Asberg depression rating scale) and the physician (clinical global improvement and impression scales). RESULTS: Intention to treat analyses showed 47% remission in patients randomised to placebo compared with 61% remission in patients randomised to sertraline (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.96) and 54% in patients randomised to mianserin (0.75, 0.44 to 1.27). Women responded better than men (1.86, 1.17 to 2.96). Subgroup analyses showed that subjects with recurrent depression (n=273) responded more frequently to sertraline than to placebo (0.43, 0.23 to 0.82) than those having their first episode of depression (1.18, 0.39 to 3.61). Statistically significant interactions between type of drug treatment and history of depression were not shown by logistic regression. CONCLUSION: The combination of active drug and simple psychological treatment (counselling, emotional support, and close follow up over a 24 week period) was more effective than simple psychological treatment alone, in particular for those with recurrent depression. Overall, women may benefit more than men. If confirmed in future studies, the findings should lead to more differentiated treatment guidelines for depression in primary care. (+info)
Sertraline N-demethylation is catalyzed by multiple isoforms of human cytochrome P-450 in vitro.
Sertraline, a new antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class, is extensively metabolized to desmethylsertraline in humans. We identified the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoforms involved in sertraline N-demethylation using pooled human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed CYP isoforms. Eadie-Hofstee plots for the sertraline N-demethylation in human liver microsomes were monophasic. The estimated Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters were: KM = 18.1 +/- 2.0 microM, Vmax = 0.45 +/- 0.03 nmol/min/mg of protein, and Vmax/KM = 25.2 +/- 4.3 microl/min/mg of protein. At the substrate concentration of 20 microM, which approximated the apparent KM value, sulfaphenazole (CYP2C9 inhibitor) and triazolam (CYP3A substrate) reduced the N-demethylation activities by 20 to 35% in human liver microsomes, whereas the inhibition induced by mephenytoin (CYP2C19 substrate) or quinidine (CYP2D6 inhibitor) was marginal. The anti-CYP2B6 antibody inhibited the sertraline N-demethylation activities by 35%. Sertraline N-demethylation activities were detected in all cDNA-expressed CYP isoforms studied. In particular, CYP2C19, CYP2B6, CYP2C9-Arg, CYP2D6-Val, and CYP3A4 all showed relatively high activity. When the contributions of CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 were estimated from the Vmax/KM of cDNA-expressed CYP isoforms and from their contents in pooled human liver microsomes, the values were found to be 35, 29, 14, 13, and 9%, respectively. The results suggest that at least five isoforms of CYP (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4) are involved in the sertraline N-demethylation in human liver microsomes and that the contribution of any individual isoform does not exceed 40% of overall metabolism. Therefore, concurrent administration of a drug that inhibits a specific CYP isoform is unlikely to cause a marked increase in the plasma concentration of sertraline. (+info)
Direct agonists for serotonin receptors enhance locomotor function in rats that received neural transplants after neonatal spinal transection.
We analyzed whether acute treatment with serotonergic agonists would improve motor function in rats with transected spinal cords (spinal rats) and in rats that received transplants of fetal spinal cord into the transection site (transplant rats). Neonates received midthoracic spinal transections within 48 hr of birth; transplant rats received fetal (embryonic day 14) spinal cord grafts at the time of transection. At 3 weeks, rats began 1-2 months of training in treadmill locomotion. Rats in the transplant group developed better weight-supported stepping than spinal rats. Systemic administration of two directly acting agonists for serotonergic 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes, quipazine and (+/-)-1-[2, 5]-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane), further increased weight-supported stepping in transplant rats. The improvement was dose-dependent and greatest in rats with poor to moderate baseline weight support. In contrast, indirectly acting serotonergic agonists, which block reuptake of 5-HT (sertraline) or release 5-HT and block its reuptake (D-fenfluramine), failed to enhance motor function. Neither direct nor indirect agonists significantly improved locomotion in spinal rats as a group, despite equivalent upregulation of 5-HT(2) receptors in the lumbar ventral horn of lesioned rats with and without transplants. The distribution of immunoreactive serotonergic fibers within and caudal to the transplant did not appear to correspond to restoration of motor function. Our results confirm our previous demonstration that transplants improve motor performance in spinal rats. Additional stimulation with agonists at subtypes of 5-HT receptors produces a beneficial interaction with transplants that further improves motor competence. (+info)
Relaxant effects of antidepressants on human isolated mesenteric arteries.
AIMS: The therapeutic action of tricyclic agents may be accompanied by unwanted effects on the cardiovascular system. The evidence for the effects on vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle comes from animal studies. Whether these studies can be extrapolated to human vessels remains to be determined. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the influence of amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline on the contractile responses of human isolated mesenteric arteries to electrical field stimulation, noradrenaline and potassium chloride. METHODS: Arterial segments (lumen diameter 0.8-1.2 mm) were obtained from portions of the human omentum during the course of 41 abdominal operations (22 men and 19 women), and rings 3 mm long were mounted in organ baths for isometric recording of tension. In some artery rings the endothelium was removed mechanically. RESULTS: In precontracted artery rings amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline (3x10(-7)-10(-4) m ) produced concentration-dependent relaxation that was independent of the presence or absence of vascular endothelium. Incubation with indomethacin (3x10(-6) m ) reduced the pD2 values thus indicating the participation of dilating prostanoid substances in this response. Amitriptyline and nortriptyline inhibited both the neurogenic-and noradrenaline-induced contractions. In contrast, only the highest concentration of sertraline reduced the adrenergic responses. Amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline inhibited contractions elicited by KCl and produced rightward shifts of the concentration-response curve to CaCl2 following incubation in calcium-free solution. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that amitriptyline and nortriptyline could act as adrenoceptor antagonists and direct inhibitors of smooth muscle contraction of human mesenteric arteries, whereas sertraline might principally exert its action only as direct inhibitor of smooth muscle contraction. This relaxant mechanism involves an interference with the entry of calcium. (+info)
Evidence for involvement of polymorphic CYP2C19 and 2C9 in the N-demethylation of sertraline in human liver microsomes.
AIMS: The present study was designed to define the kinetic behaviour of sertraline N-demethylation in human liver microsomes and to identify the isoforms of cytochrome P450 involved in this metabolic pathway. METHODS: The kinetics of the formation of N-demethylsertraline were determined in human liver microsomes from six genotyped CYP2C19 extensive (EM) and three poor metabolisers (PM). Selective inhibitors of and specific monoclonal antibodies to various cytochrome P450 isoforms were also employed. RESULTS: The kinetics of N-demethylsertraline formation in all EM liver microsomes were fitted by a two-enzyme Michaelis-Menten equation, whereas the kinetics in all PM liver microsomes were best described by a single-enzyme Michaelis-Menten equation similar to the low-affinity component found in EM microsomes. Mean apparent Km values for the high-and low-affinity components were 1.9 and 88 microm and V max values were 33 and 554 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively, in the EM liver microsomes. Omeprazole (a CYP2C19 substrate) at high concentrations and sulphaphenazole (a selective inhibitor of CYP2C9) substantially inhibited N-demethylsertraline formation. Of five monoclonal antibodies to various cytochrome P450 forms tested, only anti-CYP2C8/9/19 had any inhibitory effect on this reaction. The inhibition of sertraline N-demethylation by anti-CYP2C8/9/19 was greater in EM livers than in PM livers at both low and high substrate concentrations. However, anti-CYP2C8/9/19 did not abolish the formation of N-demethylsertraline in the microsomes from any of the livers. CONCLUSIONS: The polymorphic enzyme CYP2C19 catalyses the high-affinity N-demethylation of sertraline, while CYP2C9 is one of the low-affinity components of this metabolic pathway. (+info)
Course and cost of treatment for depression with fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline.
OBJECTIVE: To compare depression-related treatment costs and total healthcare costs for patients diagnosed with depression and treated with either sertraline, paroxetine, or fluoxetine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Claims records from a national database of patients diagnosed with depression who began treatment with an SSRI in 1995, following an antidepressant medication-free period of at least 6 months, were included. Treatment course and associated depression-related treatment and total healthcare costs during the subsequent 12-month treatment period were examined using univariate and multivariate methods. RESULTS: Nine-hundred five (905) patients taking sertraline, 492 on paroxetine, and 945 on fluoxetine met inclusion criteria. The groups were similar and representative with respect to gender and age. Mean dose over the 12-month treatment period increased 24%, indicating significant titration in all cohorts. Patients treated with paroxetine had shorter treatment duration (157.0 days) than did patients treated with fluoxetine (192.6 days) or sertraline (166.9 days, P < 0.001). Patients receiving index treatment with paroxetine were most likely to switch to another SSRI (21.3%); those taking sertraline were second most likely to switch (16.1%); and those on fluoxetine were least likely (12.4%, P = 0.001). Mean costs for depression-related outpatient visits and hospitalizations were similar. Mean antidepressant prescription costs differed, being $586, $419, and $446 for fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline cohorts, respectively (P < 0.001). In this sample, the fluoxetine cohort did not have lower nonpharmaceutical healthcare costs to offset higher pharmaceutical acquisition costs. Conclusions from median and multivariate analyses were robust to these findings. CONCLUSIONS: During this study period when fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline were all well-established agents, similar depression-related treatment courses and cost characteristics among all 3 drugs were observed. (+info)
Effects of chronic antidepressant treatments on serotonin transporter function, density, and mRNA level.
To investigate functional changes in the brain serotonin transporter (SERT) after chronic antidepressant treatment, several techniques were used to assess SERT activity, density, or its mRNA content. Rats were treated by osmotic minipump for 21 d with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) paroxetine or sertraline, the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine (DMI), or the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine. High-speed in vivo electrochemical recordings were used to assess the ability of the SSRI fluvoxamine to modulate the clearance of locally applied serotonin in the CA3 region of hippocampus in drug- or vehicle-treated rats. Fluvoxamine decreased the clearance of serotonin in rats treated with vehicle, DMI, or phenelzine but had no effect on the clearance of serotonin in SSRI-treated rats. SERT density in the CA3 region of the hippocampus of the same rats, assessed by quantitative autoradiography with tritiated cyanoimipramine ([(3)H]CN-IMI), was decreased by 80-90% in SSRI-treated rats but not in those treated with phenelzine or DMI. The serotonin content of the hippocampus was unaffected by paroxetine or sertraline treatment, ruling out neurotoxicity as a possible explanation for the SSRI-induced decrease in SERT binding and alteration in 5-HT clearance. Levels of mRNA for the SERT in the raphe nucleus were also unaltered by chronic paroxetine treatment. Based on these results, it appears that the SERT is downregulated by chronic administration of SSRIs but not other types of antidepressants; furthermore, the downregulation is not caused by decreases in SERT gene expression. (+info)