The ADA complex is a distinct histone acetyltransferase complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
We have identified two Gcn5-dependent histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the 0.8-MDa ADA complex and the 1.8-MDa SAGA complex. The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) complex contains several subunits which also function as part of other protein complexes, including a subset of TATA box binding protein-associated factors (TAFIIs) and Tra1. These observations raise the question of whether the 0.8-MDa ADA complex is a subcomplex of SAGA or whether it is a distinct HAT complex that also shares subunits with SAGA. To address this issue, we sought to determine if the ADA complex contained subunits that are not present in the SAGA complex. In this study, we report the purification of the ADA complex over 10 chromatographic steps. By a combination of mass spectrometry analysis and immunoblotting, we demonstrate that the adapter proteins Ada2, Ada3, and Gcn5 are indeed integral components of ADA. Furthermore, we identify the product of the S. cerevisiae gene YOR023C as a novel subunit of the ADA complex and name it Ahc1 for ADA HAT complex component 1. Biochemical functions of YOR023C have not been reported. However, AHC1 in high copy numbers suppresses the cold sensitivity caused by particular mutations in HTA1 (I. Pinto and F. Winston, personal communication), which encodes histone H2A (J. N. Hirschhorn et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:1999-2009, 1995). Deletion of AHC1 disrupted the integrity of the ADA complex but did not affect SAGA or give rise to classic Ada(-) phenotypes. These results indicate that Gcn5, Ada2, and Ada3 function as part of a unique HAT complex (ADA) and represent shared subunits between this complex and SAGA. (+info)
Inhibition of src family kinases by a combinatorial action of 5'-AMP and small heat shock proteins, identified from the adult heart.
Src family kinases are implicated in cellular proliferation and transformation. Terminally differentiated myocytes have lost the ability to proliferate, indicating the existence of a down-regulatory mechanism(s) for these mitogenic kinases. Here we show that feline cardiomyocyte lysate contains thermostable components that inhibit c-Src kinase in vitro. This inhibitory activity, present predominantly in heart tissue, involves two components acting combinatorially. After purification by sequential chromatography, one component was identified by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies as 5'-AMP, while the other was identified by peptide sequencing as a small heat shock protein (sHSP). 5'-AMP and to a lesser extent 5'-ADP inhibit c-Src when combined with either HSP-27 or HSP-32. Other HSPs, including alphaB-crystallin, HSP-70, and HSP-90, did not exhibit this effect. The inhibition, observed preferentially on Src family kinases and independent of the Src tyrosine phosphorylation state, occurs via a direct interaction of the c-Src catalytic domain with the inhibitory components. Our study indicates that sHSPs increase the affinity of 5'-AMP for the c-Src ATP binding site, thereby facilitating the inhibition. In vivo, elevation of ATP levels in the cardiomyocytes results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins including c-Src at the activatory site, and this effect is blocked when the 5'-AMP concentration is raised. Thus, this study reveals a novel role for sHSPs and 5'-AMP in the regulation of Src family kinases, presumably for the maintenance of the terminally differentiated state. (+info)
Sperm chromatin decondensation by template activating factor I through direct interaction with basic proteins.
Template activating factor I (TAF-I) was originally identified as a host factor required for DNA replication and transcription of adenovirus genome complexed with viral basic proteins. Purified TAF-I was shown to bind to core histones and stimulate transcription from nucleosomal templates. Human TAF-I consists of two acidic proteins, TAF-Ialpha and TAF-Ibeta, which differ from each other only in their amino-terminal regions. Here, we report that TAF-I decondenses demembraned Xenopus sperm chromatin. Human TAF-Ibeta has a chromatin decondensation activity comparable to that of NAP-I, another histone binding protein, whereas TAF-Ialpha has only a weak activity. Analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying the chromatin decondensation by TAF-I revealed that TAF-I interacts directly with sperm basic proteins. Deletion of the TAF-I carboxyl-terminal acidic region abolishes the decondensation activity. Interestingly, the acidic region itself is not sufficient for decondensation, since an amino acid substitution mutant in the dimerization domain of TAF-I which has the intact acidic region does not support chromatin decondensation. We detected the beta form of TAF-I in Xenopus oocytes and eggs by immunoblotting, and the cloning of its cDNA led us to conclude that Xenopus TAF-Ibeta also decondenses sperm chromatin. These results suggest that TAF-I plays a role in remodeling higher-order chromatin structure as well as nucleosomal structure through direct interaction with chromatin basic proteins. (+info)
Myticin, a novel cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide isolated from haemocytes and plasma of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.
We report here the isolation of two isoforms of a novel cysteine-rich peptide from haemocytes (isoform A of 4.438 Da and B of 4.562 Da) and plasma (isoform A) of the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. The two molecules display antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas only isoform B is active against the fungus Fusarium oxysporum and a gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli D31. Complete peptide sequences were determined by a combination of Edman degradation, mass spectrometry and cDNA cloning using a haemocyte cDNA library. The mature molecules, named myticins, comprise 40 residues with four intramolecular disulfide bridges and a cysteine array in the primary structure different to that of the previously characterized cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides. Sequence analysis of the cloned cDNAs revealed that myticin precursors consist of 96 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 20 amino acids, the antimicrobial peptide sequence and a 36-residue C-terminal extension. This structure suggests that myticins are synthesized as preproproteins and then processed by various proteolytic events before storage of the active peptide in the haemocytes. Myticin precursors are expressed mainly in the haemocytes as revealed by Northern blot analysis. (+info)
Subunit organization of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin type 2 (HtH2), and the cDNA sequence encoding its functional units d, e, f, g and h.
We have developed a HPLC procedure to isolate the two different hemocyanin types (HtH1 and HtH2) of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. On the basis of limited proteolytic cleavage, two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, PAGE, N-terminal protein sequencing and cDNA sequencing, we have identified eight different 40-60-kDa functional units (FUs) in HtH2, termed HtH2-a to HtH2-h, and determined their linear arrangement within the elongated 400-kDa subunit. From a Haliotis cDNA library, we have isolated and sequenced a cDNA clone which encodes the five C-terminal FUs d, e, f, g and h of HtH2. As shown by multiple sequence alignments, defg of HtH2 correspond structurally to defg from Octopus dofleini hemocyanin. HtH2-e is the first FU of a gastropod hemocyanin to be sequenced. The new Haliotis hemocyanin sequences are compared to their counterparts in Octopus, Helix pomatia and HtH1 (from the latter, the sequences of FU-f, FU-g and FU-h have recently been determined) and discussed in relation to the recent 2.3 A X-ray structure of FU-g from Octopus hemocyanin and the 15 A three-dimensional reconstruction of the Megathura crenulata hemocyanin didecamer from electron micrographs. This data allows, for the first time, an insight into the evolution of the two functionally different hemocyanin isoforms found in marine gastropods. It appears that they evolved several hundred million years ago within the Prosobranchia, after separation of the latter from the branch leading to the Pulmonata. Moreover, as a structural explanation for the inefficiency of the type 1 hemocyanin to form multidecamers in vivo, the additional N-glycosylation sites in HtH1 compared to HtH2 are discussed. (+info)
Isolation, characterization and cDNA cloning of nicotianamine synthase from barley. A key enzyme for iron homeostasis in plants.
Basic cellular processes such as electron transport in photosynthesis and respiration require the precise control of iron homeostasis. To mobilize iron, plants have evolved at least two different strategies. The nonproteinogenous amino acid nicotianamine which is synthesized from three molecules of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, is an essential component of both pathways. This compound is missing in the tomato mutant chloronerva, which exhibits severe defects in the regulation of iron metabolism. We report the purification and partial characterization of the nicotianamine synthase from barley roots as well as the cloning of two corresponding gene sequences. The function of the gene sequence has been verified by overexpression in Escherichia coli. Further confirmation comes from reduction of the nicotianamine content and the exhibition of a chloronerva-like phenotype due to the expression of heterologous antisense constructs in transgenic tobacco plants. The native enzyme with an apparent Mr of approximately 105 000 probably represents a trimer of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-binding subunits. A comparison with the recently cloned chloronerva gene of tomato reveals striking sequence homology, providing support for the suggestion that the destruction of the nicotianamine synthase encoding gene is the molecular basis of the tomato mutation. (+info)
The phosphotransferase system (PTS) of Streptomyces coelicolor identification and biochemical analysis of a histidine phosphocarrier protein HPr encoded by the gene ptsH.
HPr, the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) controls sugar uptake and carbon utilization in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria and in Gram-negative bacteria. We have purified HPr from Streptomyces coelicolor cell extracts. The N-terminal sequence matched the product of an S. coelicolor orf, designated ptsH, sequenced as part of the S. coelicolor genome sequencing project. The ptsH gene appears to form a monocistronic operon. Determination of the evolutionary relationship revealed that S. coelicolor HPr is equally distant to all known HPr and HPr-like proteins. The presumptive phosphorylation site around histidine 15 is perfectly conserved while a second possible phosphorylation site at serine 47 is not well-conserved. HPr was overproduced in Escherichia coli in its native form and as a histidine-tagged fusion protein. Histidine-tagged HPr was purified to homogeneity. HPr was phosphorylated by its own enzyme I (EI) and heterologously phosphorylated by EI of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. This phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation was absent in an HPr mutant in which histidine 15 was replaced by alanine. Reconstitution of the fructose-specific PTS demonstrated that HPr could efficiently phosphorylate enzyme IIFructose. HPr-P could also phosphorylate enzyme IIGlucose of B. subtilis, enzyme IILactose of S. aureus, and IIAMannitol of E. coli. ATP-dependent phosphorylation was detected with HPr kinase/phosphatase of B. subtilis. These results present the first identification of a gene of the PTS complement of S. coelicolor, providing the basis to elucidate the role(s) of HPr and the PTS in this class of bacteria. (+info)
Functional phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) expressed in Pichia pastoris correct N-terminal processing and secretion of heterologous proteins expressed using the PHA-E signal peptide.
Phytohemagglutinin (Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin; PHA; E- and L-forms) and snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) were expressed in Pichia pastoris using native signal peptides, or the Saccharomyces alpha-factor preprosequence, to direct proteins into the secretory pathway. PHA and GNA were present as soluble, functional proteins in culture supernatants when expressed from constructs containing the alpha-factor preprosequence. The recombinant lectins, purified by affinity chromatography, agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes at concentrations similar to the respective native lectins. However, incomplete processing of the signal sequence resulted in PHA-E, PHA-L and GNA with heterogenous N-termini, with the majority of the protein containing N-terminal extensions derived from the alpha-factor prosequence. Polypeptides in which most of the alpha-factor prosequence was present were also glycosylated. Inclusion of Glu-Ala repeats at the C-terminal end of the alpha-factor preprosequence led to efficient processing N-terminal to the Glu-Ala sequence, but inefficient removal of the repeats themselves, resulting in polypeptides with heterogenous N-termini still containing N-terminal extensions. In contrast, PHA expressed with the native signal peptide was secreted, correctly processed, and also fully functional. No expression of GNA from a construct containing the native GNA signal peptide was observed. The PHA-E signal peptide directed correct processing and secretion of both GNA and green fluorescent protein (GFP) when used in expression constructs, and is suggested to have general utility for synthesis of correctly processed proteins in Pichia. (+info)