Clindamycin plus gentamicin as expectant therapy for presumed mixed infections.
The prevalence of obligate anaerobes was studied prospectively in 60 patients with severe sepsis of intra-abdominal, soft tissue, female genital or oropulmonary origin. In addition, the efficacy of clindamycin (for anaerobes) plus gentamicin (for aerobic bacteria, especially coliforms) as initial empiric therapy in these patients was evaluated. Among 54 patients with cultural proof of infection, anaerobic pathogens were recovered from 52%. Nineteen patients had bacteremia; Bacteroides fragilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most prevalent pathogens, being isolated in five patients each. Infection was eradicated in 56 of the 60 patients (93%). Mortality related to sepsis was 7% in the entire group, 16% in patients with bacteremia and 2% in patients without bacteremia. Eighty-five percent of aerobic isolates tested were susceptible in vitro to either gentamicin or clindamycin; 97% of anaerobic isolates were inhibited by 5 mug/ml of clindamycin. (+info)
Effect of warfarin on the induction and course of experimental endocarditis.
The effect of warfarin treatment on an experimental endocarditis was studied in rabbits. Warfarin had no effect on the induction of a Streptococcus sanguis infection in catheter-induced endocardial vegetations, and the course of this infection was also unaltered. However, warfarin treatment resulted in rapidly progressive bacteremia, probably due to impaired circulation in clearing organs such as the lungs, liver, and spleen. Warfarin also reduced the survival time of the infected rabbits, in which pulmonary edema and extensive lung hemorrhages may have been a contributory factor. (+info)
HLA-DR expression and soluble HLA-DR levels in septic patients after trauma.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if cellular and soluble HLA-DR molecules may be relevant in severely injured patients for the development of gram-positive or gram-negative sepsis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: HLA-DR molecules play a central role in the specific immune response to infection. The reduced HLA-DR expression on monocytes is considered to correlate with infectious complications and the development of sepsis. Data on the role of HLA-DR expression on T cells and soluble HLA-DR molecules are rare. METHODS: HLA-DR expression on monocytes and T cells was measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of soluble HLA-DR were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: HLA-DR expression on circulating T cells, calculated as mean fluorescence intensity in channels, was reduced at day 1 after admission in 20 patients with subsequent severe sepsis compared with 46 patients without sepsis. The septic patients immediately after trauma had significantly lower soluble HLA-DR plasma levels than the nonseptic patients. At day 2 after admission, HLA-DR expression on monocytes was significantly lower in the severe sepsis group than in the patients without sepsis, and lasted until day 14 after injury. CONCLUSIONS: In severely injured patients, decreased levels of cellular and soluble HLA-DR appear as early indicators of an immune deviation associated with the development of severe sepsis. Moreover, immune alterations of different cell types may promote distinct kinds of septicemia. (+info)
Protective effect of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) in baboon sepsis is related to its antibacterial, not antiendotoxin, properties.
OBJECTIVE AND SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The recombinant fragment of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, rBPI21, has potent bactericidal activity against gram-negative bacteria as well as antiendotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) action. On the basis of these activities, the authors sought to discover whether rBPI21 would be protective in baboons with live Escherichia coli-induced sepsis and whether the potential protective effects of rBPI21 (together with antibiotics) would be more closely related to its antibacterial or LPS-neutralizing effects. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled subchronic laboratory study, the efficacy of rBPI21 or placebo was studied over 72 hours in chronically instrumented male baboons infused with live E. coli under antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: Intravenous rBPI21 attenuated sepsis-related organ failure and increased survival significantly. Bacteremia was significantly reduced in the rBPI21 group at 2 hours after the start of the E. coli infusion, whereas circulating LPS was less affected. The in vivo formation of tumor necrosis factor was significantly suppressed by the rBPI21 treatment regimen. Microcirculation and organ function were improved. CONCLUSIONS: In baboon live E. coli sepsis, the salutary effect of rBPI21 results from a more prevalent antibacterial than antiendotoxin activity. (+info)
A sustained rat model for studying the long-lasting catabolic state of sepsis.
Most animal models of sepsis induced high mortality or early recovery and do not mimic the long-lasting catabolic state observed in patients. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of sepsis which reproduces these disorders, especially the long-lasting muscle wasting. This report summarizes our observations in a series of seven experiments using this model with rats to study the route of live Escherichia coli administration, dose of bacteria, reproducibility of the model, bacterial count in tissues, comparison of injection of live or dead bacteria, metabolic perturbations linked to infection, and potential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in muscle wasting. After intravenous infection, animals were anorexic and the catabolic state was long-lasting: body weight loss for 2 to 3 days followed by a chronic wasting state for several days. Liver, spleen, lung protein content, and plasma concentration of alpha2-macroglobulin were increased 2 and 6 days after infection. At 6 days, muscle protein content was substantially (-40%) reduced. The plasma TNF-alpha level measured 1.5 h after infection correlated with body weight loss observed 9 days later. The inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion by administration of pentoxifylline 1 h before infection reduced muscle wasting and activation of proteolysis at day 2 and abolished them at day 6. This septic model mimics in rats the prolonged protein metabolism alterations and muscle atrophy characteristics of infected patients and thus is useful for studying the impact of nutritional support on outcome. (+info)
Early death during chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer: derivation of a prognostic index for toxic death and progression.
Based on an increased frequency of early death (death within the first treatment cycle) in our two latest randomized trials of combination chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), we wanted to identify patients at risk of early non-toxic death (ENTD) and early toxic death (ETD). Data were stored in a database and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for early death. During the first cycle, 118 out of 937 patients (12.6%) died. In 38 patients (4%), the cause of death was sepsis. Significant risk factors were age, performance status (PS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and treatment with epipodophyllotoxins and platinum in the first cycle (EP). Risk factors for ENTD were age, PS and LDH. Extensive stage had a hazard ratio of 1.9 (P = 0.07). Risk factors for ETD were EP, PS and LDH, whereas age and stage were not. For EP, the hazard ratio was as high as 6.7 (P = 0.0001). We introduced a simple prognostic algorithm including performance status, LDH and age. Using a prognostic algorithm to exclude poor-risk patients from trials, we could minimize early death, improve long-term survival and increase the survival differences between different regimens. We suggest that other groups evaluate our algorithm and exclude poor prognosis patients from trials of dose intensification. (+info)
Septicemia in dialysis patients: incidence, risk factors, and prognosis.
BACKGROUND: Infection is second to cardiovascular disease as a cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and septicemia causes a majority of these infectious deaths. To identify patients at high risk and to characterize modifiable risk factors for septicemia, we examined the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis for septicemia in a large, representative group of U.S. dialysis patients. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of incident ESRD patients in the case-mix study of the U.S. Renal Data System with seven years of follow-up from hospitalization and death records. Poisson regression was used to examine independent risk factors for hospital-managed septicemia. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the independent effect of septicemia on all-cause mortality and on death from septicemia. Separate analyses were performed for patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). RESULTS: Over seven years of follow-up, 11.7% of 4005 HD patients and 9.4% of 913 PD patients had at least one episode of septicemia. Older age and diabetes were independent risk factors for septicemia in all patients. Among HD patients, low serum albumin, temporary vascular access, and dialyzer reuse were also associated with increased risk. Among PD patients, white race and having no health insurance at dialysis initiation were also risk factors. Patients with septicemia had twice the risk of death from any cause and a fivefold to ninefold increased risk of death from septicemia. CONCLUSIONS: Septicemia, which carries a marked increased risk of death, occurs frequently in patients on PD as well as HD. Early referral to a nephrologist, improving nutrition, and avoiding temporary vascular access may decrease the incidence of septicemia. Further study of how race, insurance status, and dialyzer reuse can contribute to the risk of septicemia among ESRD patients is indicated. (+info)
Characteristics of a strain of Clostridium carnis causing septicaemia in a young infant.
Clostridium carnis is a species which is only rarely isolated from man or animals and is occasionally found in the soil. This paper is an account of a single isolate found in blood cultures obtained from an 8-week-old boy who was suffering from gastroenteritis. (+info)