Double blind randomised controlled trial of topical glyceryl trinitrate in anal fissure.
AIMS: To determine the effectiveness and safety of topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in the management of acute anal fissure in children. METHODS: Individual children were randomised to receive GTN paste or placebo for six weeks in addition to oral senna and lactulose. Patients took laxatives alone for a further 10 weeks. Each week a research nurse telephoned families to assess pain scores and give advice. Main outcome measures were validated standardised pain scores and time to painless defaecation. RESULTS: Forty subjects were recruited from 46 eligible children; 31 children completed the trial (13 in the GTN group and 18 in the placebo group). No differences in the proportion of those achieving pain free defaecation with relation to time were seen between the two groups. Similarly, there were no significant differences in pain scores between the two groups over the 16 week study period. However, in both groups pain scores had decreased significantly. There were no differences in the incidence of rectal bleeding, faecal soiling, presence of visible fissure, skin tag, or faecal loading at outpatient review at the time of recruitment, or at 6 weeks and 16 weeks. No serious adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that 0.2% GTN paste is ineffective in the treatment of acute anal fissures in childhood. However the overall fissure healing rate is high (84%) with associated reduction in pain scores, suggesting that a nurse based treatment programme can achieve a high rate of fissure healing. (+info)
Screening and identification of proteins mediating senna induced gastrointestinal motility enhancement in mouse colon.
AIM: To isolate the proteins involved in pharmacologic action of senna extract (SE) from mouse gastrointestinal tract and to explore the molecular mechanism of gastrointestinal motility change induced by SE. METHODS: SE was administrated to mice by different routes. Gastrointestinal motility of mice was observed using cathartic, gastrointestinal propellant movement experiments and X-ray analysis. Mouse model for gastrointestinal motility enhancement was established through continuous gastric administration of SE at progressively increased dose. At 3 h and week 3, 4, 6 and 10, morphological changes of gastrointestinal tissues were found under light microscope. Ultrastructural changes of intestinal and colonic tissues at week 6 were observed under transmission electron microscope. The colonic proteomic changes in model mice were examined by two-dimension polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradient isoelectric focusing to screen the differentially expressed proteins, and their molecular masses and isoelectric points were determined. Two N-terminal sequences of the samples were also determined by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: SE (0.3g) caused diarrhea after gastric administration in 1-6h and enhanced gastrointestinal propellant (65.1+/-7.5%; 45.8+/-14.6%, P<0.01) in mice, but intramuscular and hypodermic injection had no cathartic effect. X-ray analysis of gastrointestinal motility demonstrated that gastric administration of SE enhanced gastric evacuation and gastrointestinal transferring function. At 3 h and week 3 and 4 after gastric administration of SE, light microscopic examination revealed no apparent change in gastrointestinal mucosal tissues, but transmission electron microscopic examination revealed inflammatory changes in whole layer of intestinal and colonic wall. Twenty differential proteins were detected in the colonic tissues of the model mice by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and the N-terminal amino acid sequences of two proteins were determined. CONCLUSION: SE causes diarrhea and enhances gastrointestinal motility through digestive tract administration. Long-term gastric administration of SE induces inflammatory changes and cell damage in the whole gastrointestinal tract. The differential proteins screened from the colonic tissues of the model mice might mediate the enhancing effect of SE on gastrointestinal motility. (+info)
alpha-Pinene inhibits growth and induces oxidative stress in roots.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Determining the mode of action of allelochemicals is one of the challenging aspects in allelopathic studies. Recently, allelochemicals have been proposed to cause oxidative stress in target tissue and induce an antioxidant mechanism. alpha-Pinene, one of the common monoterpenoids emitted from several aromatic plants including forest trees, is known for its growth-inhibitory activity. However, its mechanism of action remains unexplored. The aim of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effect of alpha-pinene on root growth and generation of reactive oxygen species, as indicators of oxidative stress and changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes. METHODS: Effects of alpha-pinene on early root growth were studied in five test species, Cassia occidentalis, Amaranthus viridis, Triticum aestivum, Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum. Electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide generation, proline accumulation, and activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) were studied in roots of C. occidentalis. KEY RESULTS: alpha-Pinene inhibited the radicle growth of all the test species. Exposure of C. occidentalis roots to alpha-pinene enhanced solute leakage, and increased levels of malondialdehyde, proline and hydrogen peroxide, indicating lipid peroxidation and induction of oxidative stress. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPX, APX and GR were significantly elevated, thereby indicating the enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon alpha-pinene exposure. Increased levels of scavenging enzymes indicates their induction as a secondary defence mechanism in response to alpha-pinene. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that alpha-pinene inhibits early root growth and causes oxidative damage in root tissue through enhanced generation of ROS, as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, disruption of membrane integrity and elevated antioxidant enzyme levels. (+info)
Cassia occidentalis poisoning causes fatal coma in children in western Uttar Pradesh.
We investigated cases of the annual seasonal outbreaks of acute hepato-myo-encephalopathy in young children in western Uttar Pradesh for causal association with Cassia occidentalis poisoning, by a prospective survey in 2006. During September-October homes of 10 consecutive cases were visited and history of eating Cassia beans was obtained in all. Nine children died within 4-5 days. There appears to be an etiological association between consumption of Cassia occidentalis beans and acute hepato-myo-encephalopathy. (+info)
Quantitative HPLC determination and extraction of anthraquinones in Senna alata leaves.
A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the simultaneous determination of four anthraquinones: rhein, aloe-emodin, emodin, and chrysophanol in Senna alata leaves. The method involves the use of a TSK-gel ODS-80Tm column (5 microm, 4.6 x 150 mm) at 25 degrees C with the mixture of methanol and 2% aqueous acetic acid (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase and detection at 254 nm. The parameters of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity of the method were evaluated. The recovery of the method is 100.3-100.5%, and linearity (r(2) > 0.9998) was obtained for all anthraquinones. A high degree of specificity as well as repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviation values less than 5%) were also achieved. The solvent for extraction of anthraquinones from S. alata leaves was examined in order to increase the anthraquinone content of the leaf extract. It was found that a solution of 5% hydrochloric acid (v/v), 5% ferric chloride (w/v), and 15% water in methanol (v/v) was capable of increasing the anthraquinone content in the leaf extract up to 1.67% (w/w). (+info)
Chemical composition, botanical evaluation and screening of radical scavenging activity of collected pollen by the stingless bees Melipona rufiventris (Urucu-amarela).
Genotoxicity detection of five medicinal plants in Nigeria.
This study was performed to investigate the safety of Alchornea cordifolia, Cnestis ferruginea, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Trema orientalis, and Senna alata in respect to genotoxicity. These five medicinal plants are widely distributed in Africa. They are used as a traditional medicine in many African counties for the treatment of microbial, inflammatory, and stress-related diseases. To evaluate the bacterial reverse mutation of these five medicinal plants, the in vitro Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, with or without the addition of S9 mixture was performed. Concentrations used for this test were 625, 2,500, and 5,000 microg per plate. A. cordifolia, C. ferruginea, L. sericeus, and T. orientalis showed negative results in the bacterial reverse mutation test, suggesting that it is potentially safe for these plants to be used in medicinal plants supplements at high doses. However, our experiments suggest that S. alata is a potent mutagen. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the carcinogenicity of S. alata in order to adequately assess the risks for human health. (+info)