Elevated activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase in blood from patients with skeletal metastases of prostate cancer.
The semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases constitute a group of copper-containing enzymes whose physiological function is unclear. The enzymes are present in various tissues, including blood plasma. At present, the source of the plasma enzyme in humans is not known. Results of a recent study suggested that semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase is expressed in the skeleton, e.g. in the spine. Using an indirect autoradiographic method in mice, we provide evidence that semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase is present in high abundance in bone tissue. Specific activities of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase were estimated in blood samples from subjects with femoral bone fractures. Moreover, enzyme activities were also measured in patients suffering from prostate cancer with skeletal metastases. The level of specific semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in serum was significantly elevated in patients with skeletal metastases compared with both healthy controls and patients having prostate cancer without signs of skeletal metastases. Based on the results of the present study, we propose that semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase in blood plasma may originate, at least in part, from the skeleton. (+info)
Simultaneous determination of formaldehyde and methylglyoxal in urine: involvement of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase-mediated deamination in diabetic complications.
The deamination of methylamine and aminoacetone by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) produces formaldehyde and methylglyoxal, respectively, which have been presumed to be involved in diabetic complications. A high-performance liquid chromatography procedure using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) as a derivatizing agent is developed to determine endogenous formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, malondialdehyde, and acetaldehyde. The devised DNPH method is sensitive enough to analyze aldehyde levels in urine. An increase in the excretion of formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, and malondialdehyde is confirmed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Following the chronic administration of methylamine, the urinary levels of both formaldehyde and malondialdehyde (a product from lipid peroxidation) are found to be substantially increased. A potent selective SSAO inhibitor, (E)-2-(4-fluorophenethyl)-3-fluoroallylamine hydrochloride (MDL-72974A), reduced the formation of formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, and malondialdehyde. The increase of the cytotoxic aldehyde levels as a result of increased SSAO-mediated deamination may occur in some pathological conditions. (+info)
S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from baker's yeast.
1. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine carboxy-lyase, EC 220.127.116.11) was purified more than 1100-fold from extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by affinity chromatography on columns of Sepharose containing covalently bound methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (1,1'[(methylethanediylidene)dinitrilo]diguanidine) [Pegg, (1974) Biochem J. 141, 581-583]. The final preparation appeared to be homogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis at pH 8.4. 2. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity was completely separated from spermidine synthase activity [5'-deoxyadenosyl-(5'),3-aminopropyl-(1),methylsulphonium-salt-putrescine 3-aminopropyltransferase, EC 18.104.22.168] during the purification procedure. 3. Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity from crude extracts of baker's yeast was stimulated by putrescine, 1,3-diamino-propane, cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) and spermidine; however, the purified enzyme, although still stimulated by the diamines, was completely insensitive to spermidine. 4. Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase has an apparent Km value of 0.09 mM for adenosylmethionine in the presence of saturating concentrations of putrescine. The omission of putrescine resulted in a five-fold increase in the apparent Km value for adenosylmethionine. 5. The apparent Ka value for putrescine, as the activator of the reaction, was 0.012 mM. 6. Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) and S-methyladenosylhomocysteamine (decarboxylated adenosylmethionine) were powerful inhibitors of the enzyme. 7. Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from baker's yeast was inhibited by a number of conventional carbonyl reagents, but in no case could the inhibition be reversed with exogenous pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. (+info)
Effects of a molecular change in collagen on lung structure and mechanical function.
Semicarbazide, a lathyrogen, was given to growing rats to elucidate the consequences of altering the molecular structure of fibrous proteins within the lung. Static pressure-volume (P-V) measurements during deflation of saline-filled lungs showed normal recoil pressure and compliance values within the physiological range of lung volume. Quasi-static P-V measurements were also normal during slow reinflation, even beyond physiological limits to a recoil pressure of 20 cm H20. However, the lungs of experimental rats ruptured at much lower recoil pressures than controls. Histology was normal in lungs fixed at 20 cm H20. In contrast, lungs showed dilation of terminal air spaces, rupture of alveolar walls, and an increase in mean linear intercept in experimental compared with control specimens, when fixed at 30 cm H20. Biochemical analyses revealed reduced cross-linking of lung collagen without change in its total content. There were no detectable changes in the quantity or quality of lung elastin. It is concluded that semicarbazide may selectively impair the maturation of lung collagen and that immaturity of lung collagen is associated with a reduction in the tensile strength of lung tissue, without changes in elasticity within physiological volume limits. (+info)
Lesion of the ventral periaqueductal gray reduces conditioned fear but does not change freezing induced by stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray.
Previously-reported evidence showed that freezing to a context previously associated with footshock is impaired by lesion of the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG). It has also been shown that stepwise increase in the intensity of the electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) produces alertness, then freezing, and finally escape. These aversive responses are mimicked by microinjections of GABA receptor antagonists, such as bicuculline, or blockers of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), such as semicarbazide, into the dPAG. In this work, we examined whether the expression of these defensive responses could be the result of activation of ventral portion of the periaqueductal gray. Sham- or vPAG electrolytic-lesioned rats were implanted with an electrode in the dPAG for the determination of the thresholds of freezing and escape responses. The vPAG electrolytic lesions were behaviorally verified through a context-conditioned fear paradigm. Results indicated that lesion of the vPAG disrupted conditioned freezing response to contextual cues associated with footshocks but did not change the dPAG electrical stimulation for freezing and escape responses. In a second experiment, lesion of the vPAG also did not change the amount of freezing and escape behavior produced by microinjections of semicarbazide into the dPAG. These findings indicate that freezing and escape defensive responses induced by dPAG stimulation do not depend on the integrity of the vPAG. A discussion on different neural circuitries that might underlie different inhibitory and active defensive behavioral patterns that animals display during threatening situations is presented. (+info)
Microbial metabolism of the pyridine ring. Metabolic pathways of pyridine biodegradation by soil bacteria.
1. Two bacteria, a Bacillus sp. and a Nocardia sp. (strain Z1) were isolated from soil by enrichment with 0.1 percent (v/v) pyridine and grew rapidly on this compound as sole C, N and energy source. The monohydroxypyridines, tetrahydropyridine, piperidine and some other analogues were not utilized for growth or oxidized by washed suspensions of either bacterium. 2. Cell-free extracts were unable to metabolize pyridine even after supplementation with a variety of cofactors or protecting agents. Treatment of cells with toluene led to rapid loss of the ability to oxidize pyridine. 3. In the presence of 10mM-semicarbazide at pH 6.0, Nocardia Z1 accumulated a semialdehyde idenditied as its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone by chromatography, mixed melting point, mass spectrometry and isotope trapping from [2,6(-14)C]pyridine as glutarate semialdehyde. 4. Extracts of this bacterium prepared from cells grown with pyridine or exposed to the gratuitous inducer 2-picoline, contained high activities of a specific glutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. 5. Cells grown with pyridine or glutarate also contained a glutaric dialdehyde dehydrogenase, an acyl-CoA synthetase and elevated amounts of isocitrate lyase but no glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. 6. Bacillus 4 accumulated in the presence of 10mM-semicarbazide several acidic carbonyl compounds from pyridine among which was succinate semialdehyde. Extracts of this bacillus after growth of the cells with pyridine contained an inducible succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase in amounts at least 50-fold over those found in succinate-grown cells. 7. Two mutants of this bacillus, selected for their inability to grow on pyridine were deficient in succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. 8. In the presence of 0.2mM-KCN, washed suspensions of Bacillus 4 accumulated formate and possibly formamide from pyridine. The use of [14C]pyridine showed that formate was derived from C-2 of the pyridine ring. 9. The organism had a specific formamide amidohydrolase cleaving formamide quantitatively to formate and NH3. 10. Formate was further oxidized by the particle fraction. There was no soluble formate dehydrogenase in extracts. (+info)
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is an amine oxidase related to the copper-containing amine oxidase family. The tissular form of SSAO is located at the plasma membrane, and is mainly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and adipocytes. Recent studies have suggested that SSAO could activate glucose transport in fat cells. In the present work, we investigated the potential role of a chronic SSAO activation on adipocyte maturation of the 3T3-L1 pre-adipose cell line. Exposure of post-confluent 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes to methylamine, a physiological substrate of SSAO, promoted adipocyte differentiation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This effect could be related to SSAO activation, since it was antagonized in the presence of the SSAO inhibitor semicarbazide, but not in the presence of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline. In addition, methylamine-induced adipocyte maturation was mimicked by 3T3-L1 cell treatment with other SSAO substrates. Finally, the large reversion of methylamine action by catalase indicated that hydrogen peroxide generated by SSAO was involved, at least in part, in the modulation of adipocyte maturation. Taken together, our results suggest that SSAO may contribute to the control of adipose tissue development. (+info)
Combined treatment with benzylamine and low dosages of vanadate enhances glucose tolerance and reduces hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is highly expressed in adipose cells, and substrates of SSAO, such as benzylamine, in combination with low concentrations of vanadate strongly stimulate glucose transport and GLUT4 recruitment in 3T3-L1 and rat adipocytes. Here we examined whether acute and chronic administration of benzylamine and vanadate in vivo enhances glucose tolerance and reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. Acute intravenous administration of these drugs enhanced glucose tolerance in nondiabetic rats and in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. This occurred in the absence of changes in plasma insulin concentrations. However, the administration of benzylamine or vanadate alone did not improve glucose tolerance. The improvement caused by benzylamine plus vanadate was abolished when rats were pretreated with the SSAO-inhibitor semicarbazide. Chronic administration of benzylamine and vanadate exerted potent antidiabetic effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Although daily administration of vanadate alone (50 and 25 micromol x kg(-1) x day(-1) i.p.) for 2 weeks had little or no effect on glycemia, vanadate plus benzylamine reduced hyperglycemia in diabetic rats, enhanced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport, and upregulated GLUT4 expression in isolated adipocytes. In all, our results substantiated that acute and chronic administration of benzylamine with low dosages of vanadate have potent antidiabetic effects in rats. (+info)