Effect of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on reproductive function of male albino rats.
AIM: To evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on spermatogenesis in albino rats. METHODS: Male albino rats were fed with a 50 % ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruit at 100 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), 200 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) and 300 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) for 60 days. Fertility test was performed after 60 days of treatment. Sperm motility and density were observed in the cauda epididymis. Biochemical and histological analyses of the blood and reproductive organs were done. Recovery of fertility was followed to evaluate the reversibility of drug action. RESULTS: S. anacardium fruit extract administration resulted in spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. The sperm motility and density was reduced significantly. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood sugar and urea were found to be within the normal range in the whole blood. The protein, cholesterol and glycogen in the testes and the fructose in the seminal vesicle were significantly decreased after the treatment. The fruit extract feeding caused marked reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. The number of mature Leydig cells was also decreased and degenerating cells increased proportionately. CONCLUSION: S. anacardium fruit extract causes spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. (+info)
Anti-inflammatory effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Nut extract in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.
The article relates to investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut extract (SA), and also an anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, on carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma tests for their effects on acute and chronic phases of inflammation, respectively. The effect of SA on developing and developed adjuvant arthritis was also evaluated. SA significantly decreased the carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma. Indomethacin also decreased the acute and chronic phases of inflammation. SA decreased the adjuvant induced (arthritis) paw edema after the treatment, in both developing and developed adjuvant arthritis. These results indicate that the potent anti-inflammatory effect and therapeutic efficacy of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut extract against all phases of inflammation, is comparable to that of indomethacin. (+info)
Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. Nut milk extract in experimental inflammatory conditions.
Immunomodulatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut milk extract (SA) were investigated in adjuvant induced arthritis by studying the alterations in humoral and cell mediated immune responses and also the anti-inflammatory effects by evaluating the changes in paw edema, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase activities. Pharmacological studies were also conducted with SA and indomethacin on experimental animals for evaluating the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and ulcerogenic activities. The alterations in the humoral and cell mediated immunity were significantly reverted back to near normal levels on treatment with SA. The drug significantly reduced the elevation in the paw edema, TNF-alpha, nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase levels when compared with adjuvant induced arthritic animals, which shows the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug. SA showed strong anti-inflammatory effects in xylene-induced ear edema and formalin-induced inflammation. In analgesic test, the extract elicited a potential activity on both acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as hot plate test showing its central and peripheral mediated action. The drug also elicited antipyretic action in yeast-induced hyperemia in rats. In addition, the extract did not produce any ulceration on gastric mucosa during ulcerogenic test and did not produce any serious adverse effects. All these effects are nearly similar to the activities of indomethacin except the ulceration where indomethacin produced significant ulceration. From this study, the protective immunological and pharmacological role of SA is demonstrated. (+info)
Semecarpus anacardium nut extract promotes the antioxidant defence system and inhibits anaerobic metabolism during development of lymphoma.
Anti cancerous efficacy of Ayurvedic milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nuts on hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats.
The objective of the study was to determine the anticancerous efficacy of Ayurvedic preparation made of Semecarpus anacardium (SA) nuts. Five groups of rats were used for the study. Group I served as water control. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was induced in groups II, III and IV animals using N-nitrosodiethylamine as inducing agent followed by phenobarbitone as promoter for 13 weeks. Group-II animals were kept untreated as hepatocellular carcinoma control. Group-III animals were treated with Ayurvedic milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nuts at dose mentioned in Ashtangahridaya, an authentic book of Ayurveda for 49 days and group-IV animals were treated with doxorubicin as reference drug at dose of 1mg/kg twice a week for 7 weeks. Group V animals were kept as drug (SA nut milk extract) control for studying the effect of nut milk extract on normal rats. After 154 days of experiment, all animals were subjected to screening for HCC by estimation of liver enzymes, HCC marker (alpha-2 macroglobulin) and histopathology. Both liver enzymes and HCC marker were increased in hepatocellular carcinoma control along with neoplastic changes in liver and were decreased in Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract treated group. The Ayurvedic drug showed positive correlation with the action of doxorubicin. This study demonstrated the efficacy of Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma either alone or along with chemotherapy. (+info)