Cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) Portuguese version used to identify violence within couples.
Following a previous evaluation of concept, item and semantic equivalences, this paper assesses the measurement equivalence between a Portuguese version of Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) and the original instrument conceived in English. The CTS2 has been widely used to tap violence between couples. An intra-observer reliability evaluation involved 165 replications carried out within a 24-48 hour period. Kappa point-estimates were above 0.75 for all scales except sexual coercion. The analysis of internal consistency concerned 768 subjects with complete sets of items. Kuder-Richardson-20 estimates ranged from 0.65 to 0.86. Results were similar to those found in the original instrument in English for the negotiation, psychological aggression and physical violence scales, yet not so for the sexual coercion and injury scales. Factor analysis identified factors with a recognizable correspondence to the underlying dimensions, although a few inconsistencies were detected. For the assessment of construct validity (n = 528) associations between the instrument's scales were evaluated, as well as the relationships between violence and putative underlying dimensions. Overall, the findings suggest that the version can be used in the Brazilian context, although further investigation should be carried out to unveil some important remaining issues. (+info)
Public perception of ex-mental patients.
Data are presented from two studies which show that perceptions of ex-mental patients appear to derive from a lack of information and that the provision of information alters the perception of former patients. Perceived unpredictability of behavior and dangerousness seem to form a dyad that causes the public to fear the mentally ill. More positive perceptions of mildly ill ex-mental patients were obtained when subjects were given short paragraphs describing typical behaviors and symptoms. These findings support the notion that a fear-motivated threat recoil cycle process is likely to be evoked by attempts to establish locally based treatment facilities, particularly in residential communities. (+info)
Analogical reasoning and prefrontal cortex: evidence for separable retrieval and integration mechanisms.
The present study examined the contributions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregions to two component processes underlying verbal analogical reasoning: semantic retrieval and integration. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while subjects performed propositional analogy and semantic decision tasks. On each trial, subjects viewed a pair of words (pair 1), followed by an instructional cue and a second word pair (pair 2). On analogy trials, subjects evaluated whether pair 2 was semantically analogous to pair 1. On semantic trials, subjects indicated whether the pair 2 words were semantically related to each other. Thus, analogy--but not semantic--trials required integration across multiple retrieved relations. To identify regions involved in semantic retrieval, we manipulated the associative strength of pair 1 words in both tasks. Anterior left inferior PFC (aLIPC) was modulated by associative strength, consistent with a role in controlled semantic retrieval. Left frontopolar cortex was insensitive to associative strength, but was more sensitive to integration demands than was aLIPC, consistent with a role in integrating the products of semantic retrieval to evaluate whether distinct representations are analogous. Right dorsolateral PFC exhibited a profile consistent with a role in response selection rather than retrieval or integration. These findings indicate that verbal analogical reasoning depends on multiple, PFC-mediated computations. (+info)
Patient and provider perceptions of diabetes: measuring and evaluating differences.
OBJECTIVE: This study measures diabetes care perceptions of patients and their providers, and examines perceptions differences of patient-provider pairs. METHODS: Patient and provider perceptions were assessed using the Diabetes Semantic Differential Scales (DSDS) which ask respondents to rate diabetes care concepts using contrasting adjective pairs. The DSDS was scored by two methods: using means and using factor analysis. Persons with diabetes 40-years-old or older were recruited. Using a "snowball" sampling strategy, potential provider participants were identified by their patients; 71 providers agreed. These providers represented 51% of the patient participants and created 138 patient-provider pairs. RESULTS: For the mean scores, there were significant differences between patients and providers for 5 of the 18 semantic differentials (28%). Similarly, the factor scores indicated significant differences for 14 of 54 factors (26%). The effect sizes indicated practical differences. CONCLUSION: Significant differences exist between patient and provider perceptions. Generally, patients have the more positive diabetes perceptions. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: During patient and provider discussions, participants can perceive diabetes concepts differently. The DSDS can determine perception differences. While it is best to use factor analyses to score the DSDS, mean scores are more easily calculated and indicate the broad conceptual areas where patient and provider differ. (+info)
Stereotyping between physical therapy students and occupational therapy students.
The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of preprofessional stereotypes in physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) students at an urban midwestern university. Forty-two junior PT students and 42 junior OT students completed the Health Team Stereotyping Scale (HTSS) as a self-administered survey questionnaire. The students' total and individual word-pair scores on the HTSS were then compared. The first comparison, between the PT students' and the OT students' views of the PT profession, indicated that the PT students' assessment of the PT profession was more positive than that of the OT students. The second comparison, between the OT students' and the PT students' views of the OT profession, indicated that the OT students' perception of the OT profession was more positive than that of the PT students. Each student group chose both positive and negative descriptors for the other group. Some positive adjectives chosen by the OT students to describe PT students were "proud," "passive," and "precise." The PT students chose "casual" and "intentional" to positively describe OT students. Some negative adjectives chosen by the OT students to describe PT students were "overrated," "competitive," and "strict." The PT students described OT students as "passive," "dull," and "narrow." Both groups thought the other group was conventional and conservative. Awareness of the existence of positive and negative stereotypes may influence behaviors in preprofessional and professional environments. (+info)
Combining a semantic differential with fMRI to investigate brands as cultural symbols.