Modulation of brain reward circuitry by leptin. (1/151)

Leptin, a hormone secreted by fat cells, suppresses food intake and promotes weight loss. To assess the action of this hormone on brain reward circuitry, changes in the rewarding effect of lateral hypothalamic stimulation were measured after leptin administration. At five stimulation sites near the fornix, the effectiveness of the rewarding electrical stimulation was enhanced by chronic food restriction and attenuated by intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin. In contrast, the rewarding effect of stimulating neighboring sites was insensitive to chronic food restriction and was enhanced by leptin in three of four cases. These opposing effects of leptin may mirror complementary changes in the rewarding effects of feeding and of competing behaviors.  (+info)

Influence of bombesin on threshold for feeding and reward in the rat. (2/151)

Bombesin's purported role in satiety mechanisms prompted this investigation of its effects on thresholds for stimulation-induced feeding and self-stimulation in the rat. Single electrodes were implanted in the lateral hypothalamus and the ability of each electrode to support self-stimulation and stimulation-induced feeding was evaluated at four current levels between 80 and 320 microA. The frequency thresholds associated with each current value were assessed following four intraperitoneal doses of bombesin, 2, 4, 8, and 16 micrograms/kg, as well as a saline dose. Bombesin increased the thresholds for stimulation-induced feeding at doses known to reduce food intake without influencing self-stimulation thresholds. From these findings we conclude that (1) the effects of peripheral bombesin on stimulation-induced feeding are analogous to its effects on normal feeding and (2) the data provide additional evidence for a pharmacological dissociation between stimulation-induced feeding and reward.  (+info)

A synthetic agonist at the orphanin FQ/nociceptin receptor ORL1: anxiolytic profile in the rat. (3/151)

The biochemical and behavioral effects of a nonpeptidic, selective, and brain-penetrant agonist at the ORL1 receptor are reported herein. This low molecular weight compound [(1S,3aS)-8- (2,3,3a,4,5, 6-hexahydro-1H-phenalen-1-yl)-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triaza- spiro[4. 5]decan-4-one] has high affinity for recombinant human ORL1 receptors and has 100-fold selectivity for ORL1 over other members of the opioid receptor family. It is a full agonist at these receptors and elicits dose-dependent anxiolytic-like effects in a set of validated models of distinct types of anxiety states in the rat (i.e., elevated plus-maze, fear-potentiated startle, and operant conflict). When given systemically, the compound has an efficacy and potency comparable to those of a benzodiazepine anxiolytic such as alprazolam or diazepam. However, this compound is differentiated from a classical benzodiazepine anxiolytic by a lack of efficient anti-panic-like activity, absence of anticonvulsant properties, and lack of effects on motor performance and cognitive function at anxiolytic doses (0.3 to 3 mg/kg i.p.). No significant change in intracranial self-stimulation performance and pain reactivity was observed in this dose range. Higher doses of this compound (>/=10 mg/kg) induced disruption in rat behavior. These data confirm the notable anxiolytic-like effects observed at low doses with the orphanin FQ/nociceptin neuropeptide given locally into the brain and support a role for orphanin FQ/nociceptin in adaptive behavioral fear responses to stress.  (+info)

Brain-stimulation reward thresholds raised by an antisense oligonucleotide for the M5 muscarinic receptor infused near dopamine cells. (4/151)

Oligonucleotides targeting M5 muscarinic receptor mRNA were infused for 6 d into the ventral tegmental area of freely behaving rats trained to bar-press for lateral hypothalamic stimulation. The bar-pressing rate was determined at a range of frequencies each day to evaluate the effects of infusions on reward. M5 antisense oligonucleotide (oligo) infusions increased the frequency required for bar pressing by 48% over baseline levels, with the largest increases occurring after 4-6 d of infusion. Two control oligos had only slight effects (means of 5 and 11% for missense and sense oligos, respectively). After the infusion, the required frequency shifted back to baseline levels gradually over 1-5 d. Antisense oligo infusions decreased M5 receptors on the ipsilateral, but not the contralateral, side of the ventral tegmentum, as compared with a missense oligo. Therefore, M5 muscarinic receptors associated with mesolimbic dopamine neurons seem to be important in brain-stimulation reward.  (+info)

Conditioned suppression of behavior maintained by intracranial stimulation as a function of stimulation intensity. (5/151)

Conditioned suppression was demonstrated in two experiments with rats lever pressing on a fixed-ration 1 schedule for lateral hypothalamic intracranaial stimulation (ICS)'n Experiment I, conditioned suppression of responding for low-intensity ICS was obtained with a moderate intensity of foot shock, In Experiment II, low and high intensities of ICS were alternated within the same session and the same animal The suppression that was exhibited with low intensity ICS was minimal or absent with high-intensity stimulation, despite the pairing of foot shock with each warning stimulus. Conditioned suppression was a function of ICS intensity, and was independent of response rates. The inverse relationship between ICS intensity and degree os suppression is consistent with a motivational analysis of conditioned suppression. Previous reports of resistance to suppression of behaviors maintained by ICS may now be attributed to the use of high-intensity stimulation.  (+info)

Development and characteristics of a synovial-like interface membrane around cemented tibial hemiarthroplasties in a novel rat model of aseptic prosthesis loosening. (6/151)

OBJECTIVE: Aseptic prosthesis loosening (APL) is related to the formation and aggressive growth of a synovial-like interface membrane (SLIM) between prosthesis and bone. However, investigation of the early phases of SLIM development in humans presents major difficulties. This study was undertaken to develop and characterize the usefulness of a novel animal model of APL that is based on an established model of defined exercise in a running wheel by Wistar rats that have been subjected to intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). METHODS: Cemented tibial hemiarthroplasties were implanted into the left knees of 7 male Wistar rats. After 2 weeks, exercise in a running wheel was started in all rats, with a running-load of 2 hours/day for 5 days/week. Six months postoperatively, the knee joints were removed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin. Histologic evaluation on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections was performed to investigate the development of a SLIM and the presence of cement debris particles. To characterize the SLIM on a molecular level and investigate growth-regulating factors, the expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Although the prostheses appeared mechanically stable after 6 months, the development of SLIM with areas of bone resorption was seen in all samples. Resembling human SLIM, these membranes consisted of loose fibrous tissue, with cement debris particles located particularly at sites originally attached to the prostheses. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed the expression of TGFbeta and Bcl-2 in all specimens. Interestingly, staining for TGFbeta and Bcl-2 was restricted to areas where the SLIM were attached to bone. In contrast, there was only negligible expression of both proteins at sites adjacent to the prostheses. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that the ICSS Wistar rat model constitutes a feasible tool for studying early stages of APL, and specifically the effect of defined running exercise on SLIM formation. The results further suggest that both cellular proliferation, as stimulated by TGFbeta, and altered apoptosis contribute to early stages of SLIM formation. The expression patterns of TGFbeta and Bcl-2 indicate that the growth of the SLIM is initiated and promoted from the bone rather than from the prosthesis.  (+info)

Some structural aspects of deviant child behavior. (7/151)

Covariation within behavior repertoires of problem children were examined. Two boys, referred for psychological help, were observed both at school and at home for about 3 yr. A coded observation system permitted scoring of 19 child-behavior categories and six social-environment categories. After a two-month baseline, behavior categories were intercorrelated, demonstrating that each child showed a group of behaviors that covaried. These groupings were specific to the home and school settings. Contingency management procedures were then applied to each child's problem behaviors in one setting. Next, a reversal phase was instituted, followed by resumption of the initial contingency management phase. These three phases lasted seven months, until the end of the children's public school terms. Results showed that the baseline group of covarying behaviors continued to covary over the three experimental phases. The children then entered a remedial education setting for three summer months, and then returned to schools and were observed in follow-up for 2 yr. The baseline group of behaviors continued to covary during both phases. The behavior covariations could not be accounted for on the basis of temporal relations between the behaviors and social enviroment categories. Although no behavior covariations extended across either child's home and school settings, contingency management procedures produced across-setting effects.  (+info)

Autonomic responses of autistic children to people and objects. (8/151)

Several recent lines of inquiry have pointed to the amygdala as a potential lesion site in autism. Because one function of the amygdala may be to produce autonomic arousal at the sight of a significant face, we compared the responses of autistic children to their mothers' face and to a plain paper cup. Unlike normals, the autistic children as a whole did not show a larger response to the person than to the cup. We also monitored sympathetic activity in autistic children as they engaged in a wide range of everyday behaviours. The children tended to use self-stimulation activities in order to calm hyper-responsive activity of the sympathetic ('fight or flight') branch of the autonomic nervous system. A small percentage of our autistic subjects had hyporesponsive sympathetic activity, with essentially no electrodermal responses except to self-injurious behaviour. We sketch a hypothesis about autism according to which autistic children use overt behaviour in order to control a malfunctioning autonomic nervous system and suggest that they have learned to avoid using certain processing areas in the temporal lobes.  (+info)