A worksite smoking intervention: a 2 year assessment of groups, incentives and self-help.
Sixty-three companies in the Chicago area were recruited to participate in a worksite smoking cessation program. Participants in each worksite received a television program and newspaper supplement (part of a community-wide media campaign), and one of three conditions: (1) self-help manuals alone (M), (2) self-help manuals and incentives for 6 months (IM) or (3) maintenance manuals, incentives and cognitive-behavioral support groups for 6 months (GIM). Results at the 2 year assessment are examined using a random-effects regression model. In addition, various definitions of quit-rate commonly used in smoking cessation research are explored and the advantages of using a public health approach in the worksite are examined. (+info)
Mental health care in Cambodia.
An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization. (+info)
Update on Parkinson's disease.
Parkinson's disease is a progressive degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The hallmark physical signs are tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease is caused by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and nigrostriatal pathway of the midbrain. Secondary parkinsonism may be caused by certain drugs (e.g., metoclopramide and haloperidol) or by cerebrovascular disease (e.g., multiple lacunar strokes). The disease can usually be diagnosed based on the history and physical findings. Dopamine replacement is still considered the most efficacious treatment for Parkinson's disease, but dopamine agonists, formerly prescribed only as adjunctive therapy, are emerging as useful initial therapy. Other pharmacologic treatments include drugs that inhibit dopamine-metabolizing enzymes (monoamine oxidase-B and catechol O-methyltransferase). Injections of botulinum toxin can be helpful in patients with associated dystonia or blepharospasm. Surgery may be indicated for certain patients or when symptoms do not respond to medical therapy. Additional adjunctive therapies include physical therapy, nutritional counseling and techniques to help patients manage emotional and cognitive changes related to the disease. (+info)
Role conflict and confidentiality in multidisciplinary athlete support programmes.
As medical and scientific staff have increasingly been called upon to provide multidisciplinary support to elite performers the potential for ethical, professional, and legal conflicts has also increased. Although this has been recognised, little guidance has been provided to help resolve such conflicts. This paper identifies key issues in the provision of effective support and specifically addresses the roles of medical and scientific staff and their relations to coaches and performers. An athlete charter is presented that has successfully been used to resolve ethical conflicts and clarify the lines of communication, confidentiality, and responsibility within a national governing body. (+info)
Personality and alcohol/substance-use disorder patient relapse and attendance at self-help group meetings.
This study evaluated the role of personality in the short-term outcome of alcohol/substance-use disorder patients. Detoxifying alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST), the CAGE Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). These patients were subsequently evaluated over a 1-month period for relapse and attendance at self-help group meetings. High TPQ Persistence scale scores predicted abstinence. When the Thinking and Feeling groups were considered separately, and when these two groups were combined into a single group, high scores for the individual groups and the combined group (i.e. Thinking and Feeling types together) predicted abstinence. High TPQ Persistence scale scores and low Shyness with Strangers and Fear of Uncertainty subscale scores predicted attendance at self-help group meetings. High MBTI Extroversion and high MBTI Thinking scores also predicted attendance at self-help group meetings. When the Extroverted and Introverted types and the Thinking and Feeling types respectively were combined, as with abstinence, high scores predicted attendance at self-help group meetings. Age, gender, CAGE, MAST, and BDI scores did not predict outcome. The above information suggests that specific personality variables may predict abstinence and attendance at self-help group meetings in recently detoxified alcoholics, and this may have prognostic and therapeutic significance. (+info)
A review of the effectiveness of Smokebusters: community-based smoking prevention for young people.
Smokebusters is a community-based smoking prevention initiative for young children which aims to prevent them from starting to smoke. Despite the increase of Smokebusters clubs throughout the UK and Europe there is little published evidence of the effectiveness of this health promotion intervention. The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review of the effectiveness of established UK and Irish Smokebusters clubs. Over 60 clubs and agencies were contacted with a total of 36 reports received. Of those reviewed, most clubs have conducted process and impact evaluation to assess the popularity and quality of the programme. Attempts have been made to measure children's knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to smoking and the Smokebusters intervention. Only three clubs have conducted long-term outcome evaluations which have measured changes in knowledge, attitudes and smoking behaviour. There is some evidence that changes occur in knowledge and attitudes after the establishment of clubs. To date, there are no reports of sustained change in smoking behaviour following the establishment of Smokebusters clubs. (+info)
Psychiatric care for patients with breast cancer.
Psychiatric management of patients with breast cancer, as well as women's emotional reactions to all phases of breast cancer, were reviewed. These patients face two major losses; one is the physical loss of part of the body and a threat to life, and the other is the loss of femininity. The patients are also likely to suffer from various psychiatric problems including anxiety and depression. Oncologists should be alert to each patient's emotional reactions and potential psychiatric problems, and if necessary, should refer them to a psychiatrist. A combination of psychotherapeutic, behavioural, and pharmacologic techniques is available for the care of patients with breast cancer. Psychotherapeutic modalities include individual therapy, family therapy, group therapy, and self-help treatment. The author divided individual therapy into general and specific treatment. General treatment deals with a crisis-intervention and cognitive-behavioral approach, whereas specific treatment deals with issues relevant to patients with breast cancer. Some of the therapeutic processes were illustrated in a case report. These guidelines will contribute to the relief and prevention of emotional suffering stemming from an encounter with the most common form of cancer in women. Also, proper and effective care for patients with breast cancer requires combined use of a variety of therapeutic modalities as well as a multi-disciplinary approach including psychiatric care. (+info)
Student bodies: psycho-education communities on the web.
We have developed a Web-delivered, multimedia health educational program, Student Bodies, designed to improve body satisfaction, a probable risk factor for the development of eating disorders in young women. The program includes psycho-educational content and a newsgroup for communication, and is delivered in a structured framework of weekly readings, assignments and postings to the newsgroup. Intervention group participants improved their body image, and reduced other attitudes that predispose to eating disorders. (+info)