(1/305) The high-resolution crystal structure of the molybdate-dependent transcriptional regulator (ModE) from Escherichia coli: a novel combination of domain folds.
The molybdate-dependent transcriptional regulator (ModE) from Escherichia coli functions as a sensor of molybdate concentration and a regulator for transcription of operons involved in the uptake and utilization of the essential element, molybdenum. We have determined the structure of ModE using multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion. Selenomethionyl and native ModE models are refined to 1. 75 and 2.1 A, respectively and describe the architecture and structural detail of a complete transcriptional regulator. ModE is a homodimer and each subunit comprises N- and C-terminal domains. The N-terminal domain carries a winged helix-turn-helix motif for binding to DNA and is primarily responsible for ModE dimerization. The C-terminal domain contains the molybdate-binding site and residues implicated in binding the oxyanion are identified. This domain is divided into sub-domains a and b which have similar folds, although the organization of secondary structure elements varies. The sub-domain fold is related to the oligomer binding-fold and similar to that of the subunits of several toxins which are involved in extensive protein-protein interactions. This suggests a role for the C-terminal domain in the formation of the ModE-protein-DNA complexes necessary to regulate transcription. Modelling of ModE interacting with DNA suggests that a large distortion of DNA is not necessary for complex formation. (+info)
(2/305) The three-dimensional structure of the RNA-binding domain of ribosomal protein L2; a protein at the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome.
Ribosomal protein L2 is the largest protein component in the ribosome. It is located at or near the peptidyl transferase center and has been a prime candidate for the peptidyl transferase activity. It binds directly to 23S rRNA and plays a crucial role in its assembly. The three-dimensional structure of the RNA-binding domain of L2 from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been determined at 2.3 A resolution by X-ray crystallography using the selenomethionyl MAD method. The RNA-binding domain of L2 consists of two recurring motifs of approximately 70 residues each. The N-terminal domain (positions 60-130) is homologous to the OB-fold, and the C-terminal domain (positions 131-201) is homologous to the SH3-like barrel. Residues Arg86 and Arg155, which have been identified by mutation experiments to be involved in the 23S rRNA binding, are located at the gate of the interface region between the two domains. The molecular architecture suggests how this important protein has evolved from the ancient nucleic acid-binding proteins to create a 23S rRNA-binding domain in the very remote past. (+info)
(3/305) Crystal structure of the human O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase.
The mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of simple alkylating agents are mainly due to O(6)-alkylation of guanine in DNA. This lesion results in transition mutations. In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, repair is effected by direct reversal of the damage by a suicide protein, O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase. The alkyltransferase removes the alkyl group to one of its own cysteine residues. However, this mechanism for preserving genomic integrity limits the effectiveness of certain alkylating anticancer agents. A high level of the alkyltransferase in many tumour cells renders them resistant to such drugs. Here we report the X-ray structure of the human alkyltransferase solved using the technique of multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion. This structure explains the markedly different specificities towards various O(6)-alkyl lesions and inhibitors when compared with the Escherichia coli protein (for which the structure has already been determined). It is also used to interpret the behaviour of certain mutant alkyltransferases to enhance biochemical understanding of the protein. Further examination of the various models proposed for DNA binding is also permitted. This structure may be useful for the design and refinement of drugs as chemoenhancers of alkylating agent chemotherapy. (+info)
(4/305) Structural interactions of fibroblast growth factor receptor with its ligands.
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) effect cellular responses by binding to FGF receptors (FGFRs). FGF bound to extracellular domains on the FGFR in the presence of heparin activates the cytoplasmic receptor tyrosine kinase through autophosphorylation. We have crystallized a complex between human FGF1 and a two-domain extracellular fragment of human FGFR2. The crystal structure, determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction analysis of the selenomethionyl protein, is a dimeric assemblage of 1:1 ligand:receptor complexes. FGF is bound at the junction between the two domains of one FGFR, and two such units are associated through receptor:receptor and secondary ligand:receptor interfaces. Sulfate ion positions appear to mark the course of heparin binding between FGF molecules through a basic region on receptor D2 domains. This dimeric assemblage provides a structural mechanism for FGF signal transduction. (+info)
(5/305) Adaptive responses and apoptosis in endothelial cells exposed to carbon monoxide.
Prior studies have shown that exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) will elevate the steady-state concentration of nitric oxide ((.)NO) in several cell types and body organs and that some toxic effects of CO are directed toward endothelial cells. Studies reported in this paper were conducted with bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells exposed to 10 to 100 ppm CO to achieve concentrations between 11 and 110 nM in air-saturated buffer. Exposure to 11 nM CO increased synthesis of manganous superoxide dismutase and conferred resistance against the lethal effects of 110 nM CO. At concentrations of 88 nM CO or more, exposures for 1 h or longer caused cell death that became apparent 18 h after the exposure ceased. Caspase-1 was activated in response to CO, and cell death was inhibited by a caspase-1 inhibitor. Alteration of proteolytic pathways by CO was indicated by the presence of ubiquitin-containing intracellular inclusion bodies. Morphological changes and caspase activation indicated that cell death was an apoptotic process. Cells exposed to 110 nM CO had higher concentrations of manganous superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase-1 but no changes in glutathione peroxidase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, thiols, or catalase. Elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis were inhibited by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, S-isopropylisothiourea, and the peroxynitrite scavenger, selenomethionine. These results show that biochemical effects of CO occur at environmentally relevant concentrations, that apoptotic cell death follows exposure to relatively high concentrations of CO, and that these actions of CO are mediated by nitric oxide. (+info)
(6/305) Effects of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on selenoenzyme activity in blood lymphocytes, granulocytes, platelets and erythrocytes.
The blood selenium (Se) concentration in the U.K. population has declined by approx. 50% between 1974 and 1991, reflecting a large decrease in dietary Se supply, with intakes only half the reference nutrient intake of 1 microg/kg body weight. Tissue levels of Se are readily influenced by dietary intake. Therefore selenoprotein activity may be sub-optimal due to low Se status, and thus compromise normal cell function. To examine the effects of changing Se intake on selenoproteins, we have determined the relative effectiveness of organic selenomethionine and inorganic sodium selenite (50 microg of Se daily for 28 days) in modulating glutathione peroxidase activities in blood cells from 45 healthy men and women, from a U.K. population. Transient and acute changes in lymphocyte, granulocyte and platelet phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) activity occurred by day 7 or 14 of sodium selenite treatment and by day 7 in lymphocytes from selenomethionine-treated subjects compared with controls taking a placebo. In contrast, GPx4 activity in granulocytes and platelets in the selenomethionine group increased gradually over the 28 days. Cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activity in these blood cells from both treatment groups increased gradually over the 28 days. For each cellular selenoenzyme activity a significant inter-individual difference (P<0.001) in the extent of the response to Se supplementation was observed, but this was not related to blood Se concentrations either before or after treatments. Significant inverse correlations were evident between baseline enzyme activities and percentage change in activity after 28 days of supplementation [e.g. lymphocyte GPx4, r=-0.695 (P<0.001)], indicating that pre-treatment activity may be sub-optimal as a result of poor Se status. The different and contrasting effects that Se supplementation had on blood selenoenzyme activities may be indicative of a difference in metabolic need for Se regulated at the level of Se-dependent cell function. (+info)
(7/305) Selenomethionine: a review of its nutritional significance, metabolism and toxicity.
Although the need for selenium in human and animal nutrition is well recognized, the question concerning the proper form of selenium for supplemental use is still being debated. Ideally, selenium should be supplemented in the form in which it occurs naturally in foods. Because the L-isomer of selenomethionine (Se-met) is a major natural food-form of selenium, synthetic L-Se-met or enriched food sources thereof such as selenium yeast are appropriate supplemental forms of Se for humans; for animals, DL-Se-met is acceptable. Ingested Se-met is either metabolized directly to reactive forms of selenium or stored in place of methionine in body proteins. Se-met metabolism is closely linked to protein turnover. At constant intakes in the nutritional range, tissue Se levels increase until a steady state is established, preventing the build-up to toxic levels. (+info)
(8/305) Crystal structures of the metal-dependent 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-galactarate aldolase suggest a novel reaction mechanism.
Carbon-carbon bond formation is an essential reaction in organic chemistry and the use of aldolase enzymes for the stereochemical control of such reactions is an attractive alternative to conventional chemical methods. Here we describe the crystal structures of a novel class II enzyme, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-galactarate (DDG) aldolase from Escherichia coli, in the presence and absence of substrate. The crystal structure was determined by locating only four Se sites to obtain phases for 506 protein residues. The protomer displays a modified (alpha/beta)(8) barrel fold, in which the eighth alpha-helix points away from the beta-barrel instead of packing against it. Analysis of the DDG aldolase crystal structures suggests a novel aldolase mechanism in which a phosphate anion accepts the proton from the methyl group of pyruvate. (+info)