Mobilization of seed storage lipid by Arabidopsis seedlings is retarded in the presence of exogenous sugars.
BACKGROUND: Soluble sugar levels must be closely regulated in germinating seeds to ensure an adequate supply of energy and building materials for the developing seedling. Studies on germinating cereal seeds indicate that production of sugars from starch is inhibited by increasing sugar levels. Although numerous studies have focused on the regulation of starch metabolism, very few studies have addressed the control of storage lipid metabolism by germinating oilseeds. RESULTS: Mobilization of storage lipid by germinating seeds of the model oilseed plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. occurs at a greatly reduced rate in the presence of exogenous glucose or mannose, but not in the presence of equi-molar 3-O-methylglucose or sorbitol. The sugar-insensitive5-1/abscisic acid-insensitive4-101 (sis5-1/abi4-101) mutant is resistant to glucose inhibition of seed storage lipid mobilization. Wild-type seedlings become insensitive to glucose inhibition of storage lipid breakdown within 3 days of the start of imbibition. CONCLUSIONS: Growth in the presence of exogenous glucose significantly retards mobilization of seed storage lipid in germinating seeds from wild-type Arabidopsis. This effect is not solely due to the osmotic potential of the media, as substantially higher concentrations of sorbitol than of glucose are required to exert significant effects on lipid breakdown. The inhibitory effect of glucose on lipid breakdown is limited to a narrow developmental window, suggesting that completion of some critical metabolic transition results in loss of sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of glucose on lipid breakdown. (+info)
Antisense expression of an Arabidopsis omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene reduces salt/drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants.
A wound-inducible Arabidopsis plastid omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (fad7) cDNA was obtained. Transgenic tobacco plants were produced by integration of the antisense fad7 DNA fragments under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter into the genome. Two transgenic T1 lines, AsFAD714 and 716, showed a strong expression of the antisensefad7 and reduced amounts of linolenic acid compared with the control plants. The two T1 lines were highly sensitive to dehydration conditions, showing growth retardation on the MS medium in the presence of 250 mM NaCl, and severe wilting under drought conditions. The expression of the transcriptional factor gene abf4 transducing ABA-dependent signal in response to drought stress was strongly induced in the control plants, but far less in the AsFAD716 line. This suggests that the inhibitory effect of the antisense fad7 gene expression on the ABF-mediated stress-responsive gene regulation may reduce drought tolerance in the AsFAD716 line. However, no significant difference in the ABA concentration was found between the control and the AsFAD716 line under normal and drought conditions. (+info)
De-etiolated 1 and damaged DNA binding protein 1 interact to regulate Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis.
BACKGROUND: Plant development is exquisitely sensitive to light. Seedlings grown in the dark have a developmentally arrested etiolated phenotype, whereas in the light they develop leaves and complete their life cycle. Arabidopsis de-etiolated 1 (det1) mutants develop like light-grown seedlings even when grown in the dark. DET1 encodes a nuclear protein that appears to act downstream from multiple photoreceptors to regulate morphogenesis and gene expression in response to light. However, its function has remained unknown. RESULTS: We used microarrays to examine defects in transcription in dark-grown det1 seedlings. We found extensive changes in gene expression, including many of the transcriptional responses observed in light-treated wild-type seedlings. We used an epitope-tagging approach to determine the basis of DET1 function. GFP-DET1 rescues the det1 phenotype, is localized to the nucleus, and forms an approximately 350 kDa complex, which is required for full DET1 activity. We affinity-purified the DET1 complex and identified an approximately 120 kDa copurifying protein that is the plant homolog of UV-Damaged DNA Binding Protein 1 (DDB1), a protein implicated in the human disease xeroderma pigmentosa. A null mutation in Arabidopsis DDB1A results in no obvious phenotype on its own, yet it enhances the phenotype of a weak det1 allele. CONCLUSIONS: DET1 and DDB1 interact both biochemically and genetically. In animal cells, DDB1 interacts with histone acetyltransferase complexes. The DET1/DDB1 complex may regulate gene expression in response to light via recruitment of HAT activity. Thus, DET1, whose sequence is conserved in both animals and plants, may play a direct role in the regulation of many genes. (+info)
Contribution of the mevalonate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways to the biosynthesis of gibberellins in Arabidopsis.
Gibberellins (GAs) are diterpene plant hormones essential for many developmental processes. Although the GA biosynthesis pathway has been well studied, our knowledge on its early stage is still limited. There are two possible routes for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids leading to GAs, the mevalonate (MVA) pathway in the cytosol and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway in plastids. To distinguish these possibilities, metabolites from each isoprenoid pathway were selectively labeled with (13)C in Arabidopsis seedlings. Efficient (13)C-labeling was achieved by blocking the endogenous pathway chemically or genetically during the feed of a (13)C-labeled precursor specific to the MVA or MEP pathways. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that both MVA and MEP pathways can contribute to the biosyntheses of GAs and campesterol, a cytosolic sterol, in Arabidopsis seedlings. While GAs are predominantly synthesized through the MEP pathway, the MVA pathway plays a major role in the biosynthesis of campesterol. Consistent with some crossover between the two pathways, phenotypic defects caused by the block of the MVA and MEP pathways were partially rescued by exogenous application of the MEP and MVA precursors, respectively. We also provide evidence to suggest that the MVA pathway still contributes to GA biosynthesis when this pathway is limiting. (+info)
Characterization of a CK II protein kinase from etiolated oat seedlings.
Protein kinases play a central role in controlling the cellular metabolism of living organisms. A protein kinase was purified from etiolated oat seedlings by several steps of ion-exchange and affinity chromatographies. The kinase was a 150-kDa tetrameric protein and composed of three subunits of 34, 37, and 40 kDa proteins. The 34 and 40 kDa proteins had ATP binding sites, suggesting that they are catalytic subunits and that the 37-kDa protein is a regulatory subunit. In the in vitro phosphorylation of a crude oat cell extract, it intensively phosphorylated a serine residue of a 110-kDa protein. The 110-kDa protein was tentatively identified as a DNA topoisomerase I, based on an amino acid sequence homology. Phosphorylation of the 110-kDa protein by the kinase required ATP or GTP as a phosphoryl group donor. The kinase activity was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 0.05 microg/ml heparin. These results, therefore, indicate that the purified kinase is a CK II protein kinase and may be involved in the regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity. (+info)
Annotation and BAC/PAC localization of nonredundant ESTs from drought-stressed seedlings of an indica rice.
To decipher the genes associated with drought stress response and to identify novel genes in rice, we utilized 1540 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for functional annotation and mapping to rice genomic sequences. These ESTs were generated earlier by 3'-end single-pass sequencing of 2000 cDNA clones from normalized cDNA libraries constructed form drought-stressed seedlings of an indica rice. A rice UniGene set of 1025 transcripts was constructed from this collection through the BLASTN algorithm. Putative functions of 559 nonredundant ESTs were identified by BLAST similarity search against public databases. Putative functions were assigned at a stringency E value of 10(-6) in BLASTN and BLASTX algorithms. To understand the gene structure and function further, we have utilized the publicly available finished and unfinished rice BAC/PAC (BAC, bacterial artificial chromosome; PAC, P1 artificial chromosome) sequences for similarity search using the BLASTN algorithm. Further, 603 nonredundant ESTs have been mapped to BAC/PAC clones. BAC clones were assigned by a homology of above 95% identity along 90% of EST sequence length in the aligned region. In all, 700 ESTs showed rice EST hits in GenBank. Of the 325 novel ESTs, 128 were localized to BAC clones. In addition, 127 ESTs with identified putative functions but with no homology in IRGSP (International Rice Genome Sequencing Program) BAC/PAC sequences were mapped to the Chinese WGS (whole genome shotgun contigs) draft sequence of the rice genome. Functional annotation uncovered about a hundred candidate ESTs associated with abiotic stress in rice and Arabidopsis that were previously reported based on microarray analysis and other studies. This study is a major effort in identifying genes associated with drought stress response and will serve as a resource to rice geneticists and molecular biologists. (+info)
Altered shoot/root Na+ distribution and bifurcating salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis by genetic disruption of the Na+ transporter AtHKT1.
Sodium (Na+) is toxic to most plants, but the molecular mechanisms of plant Na+ uptake and distribution remain largely unknown. Here we analyze Arabidopsis lines disrupted in the Na+ transporter AtHKT1. AtHKT1 is expressed in the root stele and leaf vasculature. athkt1 null plants exhibit lower root Na+ levels and are more salt resistant than wild-type in short-term root growth assays. In shoot tissues, however, athkt1 disruption produces higher Na+ levels, and athkt1 and athkt1/sos3 shoots are Na+-hypersensitive in long-term growth assays. Thus wild-type AtHKT1 controls root/shoot Na+ distribution and counteracts salt stress in leaves by reducing leaf Na+ accumulation. (+info)
A simple alfalfa seedling infection model for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains associated with cystic fibrosis shows AlgT (sigma-22) and RhlR contribute to pathogenesis.
A sensitive plant infection model was developed to identify virulence factors in nontypeable, alginate overproducing (mucoid) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Nontypeable strains with defects in lipopolysaccharide O-side chains are common to CF and often exhibit low virulence in animal models of infection. However, 1,000 such bacteria were enough to show disease symptoms in the alfalfa infection. A typical mucoid CF isolate, FRD1, and its isogenic mutants were tested for alfalfa seedling infection. Although defects in the global regulators Vfr, RpoS, PvdS, or LasR had no discernable effect on virulence, a defect in RhlR reduced the infection frequency by >50%. A defect in alginate biosynthesis resulted in plant disease with >3-fold more bacteria per plant, suggesting that alginate overproduction attenuated bacterial growth in planta. FRD1 derivatives lacking AlgT, a sigma factor required for alginate production, were reduced >50% in the frequency of infection. Thus, AlgT apparently regulates factors in FRD1, besides alginate, important for pathogenesis. In contrast, in a non-CF strain, PAO1, an algT mutation did not affect its virulence on alfalfa. Conversely, PAO1 virulence was reduced in a mucA mutant that overproduced alginate. These observations suggested that mucoid conversion in CF may be driven by a selection for organisms with attenuated virulence or growth in the lung, which promotes a chronic infection. These studies also demonstrated that the wounded alfalfa seedling infection model is a useful tool to identify factors contributing to the persistence of P. aeruginosa in CF. (+info)