Evidence for the nucleotide sequence of 5-S rRNA from the flowering plant Secale cereale (Rye).
Evidence for the sequence of rye 5-S rRNA was derived from the analysis of partial and complete enzymic digests of the 32P-labelled molecule. The probable sequence of 5-S rRNA from four other flowering plants was deduced by aligning, with the homologous sequences in the rye 5-S rRNA, oligonucleotides produced by T1 and pancreatic A ribonuclease digestion. The most dissimilar differed in only seven positions. From a comparison of the sequence of rye 5-S rRNA with those known for other types of organism, it was possible to distinguish some structural features of the molecule which are common to all of them. Also, information was obtained about the possible phylogenetic relationship of the flowering plants to other organisms whose 5-S rRNA has been sequenced. (+info)
Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea growing as a parasite.
Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea, growing as a parasite on cereals, has been investigated by supplying the host plant with 14CO2 in a closed system. The presence of the pathogen induced the plant to exude photosynthate which contained high levels of sucrose. During the period of 14CO2 supply, 14C was incorporated into the sucrose and so the path of carbon into the parasite could be traced. Hexoses, derived by the action of the fungal sucrase on sucrose, were assimilated by the pathogen and largely converted into polyols - mainly mannitol and, to a lesser extent, trehalose. The rate of carbohydrate metabolism decreased with maturation of the ergot, and also showed qualitative differences between the basal and apical regions of the ergot which were probably a function of nutrient supply. (+info)
Effects of soy or rye supplementation of high-fat diets on colon tumour development in azoxymethane-treated rats.
Evidence is accumulating that a diet high in plant-derived foods may be protective against cancer. One class of plant component under increasing investigation is the phytoestrogens of which there are two main groups: the isoflavones, found mainly in soy products, and the lignans, which are more ubiquitous and are found in fruit, vegetables and cereals with high levels being found in flaxseed. In this study, we have used carefully balanced high-fat (40% energy) diets: a control diet (containing low isoflavone soy protein as the sole protein source), a rye diet (the control diet supplemented with rye bran) and a soy diet (containing as protein source a high isoflavone soy protein). The effect of these diets on the development of colonic cancer was studied in F-344 rats treated with the carcinogen, azoxymethane (two doses of 15 mg/kg given 1 week apart). Colons from treated animals were examined for aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumours after 12 and 31 weeks. Results after 12 weeks showed no differences in the total number of ACF in the control, soy or rye bran groups. However, the soy group had increased numbers of small ACF (less than four crypts/focus) while the rye group had decreased numbers of large ACF (greater than six crypts/focus). Examination of colons after 31 weeks gave similar low numbers of ACF in each group with no differences in multiplicity. There were no differences in the number of tumours between the control (1.36 tumours/rat) and soy (1.38 tumours/rat) groups. However, there was a significant decrease in the number of tumours in the rye group (0.17 tumours/rat). These results suggest that soy isoflavones have no effect on the frequency of colonic tumours in this model while rye bran supplementation decreases the frequency of colon cancer. This effect is due not to a decrease in early lesions but in their progression to larger multi-crypt ACF. The study also supports the hypothesis that larger ACF are more predictive of subsequent tumorigenicity. (+info)
The existence of the K(+) channel in plant mitochondria.
In this study, evidence is given that a number of isolated coupled plant mitochondria (from durum wheat, bread wheat, spelt, rye, barley, potato, and spinach) can take up externally added K(+) ions. This was observed by following mitochondrial swelling in isotonic KCl solutions and was confirmed by a novel method in which the membrane potential decrease due to externally added K(+) is measured fluorimetrically by using safranine. A detailed investigation of K(+) uptake by durum wheat mitochondria shows hyperbolic dependence on the ion concentration and specificity. K(+) uptake electrogenicity and the non-competitive inhibition due to either ATP or NADH are also shown. In the whole, the experimental findings reported in this paper demonstrate the existence of the mitochondrial K(+)(ATP) channel in plants (PmitoK(ATP)). Interestingly, Mg(2+) and glyburide, which can inhibit mammalian K(+) channel, have no effect on PmitoK(ATP). In the presence of the superoxide anion producing system (xanthine plus xanthine oxidase), PmitoK(ATP) activation was found. Moreover, an inverse relationship was found between channel activity and mitochondrial superoxide anion formation, as measured via epinephrine photometric assay. These findings strongly suggest that mitochondrial K(+) uptake could be involved in plant defense mechanism against oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species generation. (+info)
5-Methylcytosine distribution and genome organization in triticale before and after treatment with 5-azacytidine.
Triticale (2n=6x=42) is a hybrid plant including rye (R) and wheat (A and B) genomes. Using genomic in situ hybridization with rye DNA as a probe, we found the chromosomes of the R genome were not intermixed with the wheat chromosomes in 85% of nuclei. After treatment of seedlings with low doses of the drug 5-azacytidine (5-AC), leading to hypomethylation of the DNA, the chromosomes became intermixed in 60% of nuclei; the next generation showed intermediate organization. These results correlate with previous data showing that expression of R-genome rRNA genes, normally suppressed, is activated by 5-AC treatment and remains partially activated in the next generation. The distribution of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) was studied using an antibody to 5-mC. Methylation was detected along the lengths of all chromosomes; there were some chromosome regions with enhanced and reduced methylation, but these were not located at consistent positions, nor were there differences between R and wheat genome chromosomes. After 5-AC treatment, lower levels of methylation were detected. After 5-AC treatment, in situ hybridization with rye genomic DNA sometimes showed micronuclei of rye origin and multiple translocations between wheat and rye chromosomes. Genomic DNA was analysed using methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and, as probes, two rDNA sequences, two tandemly organised DNA sequences from rye (pSc200 and pSc250), and copia and the gypsy group retrotransposon fragments from rye and wheat. DNA extracted immediately after 5-AC treatment was cut more by methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes than DNA from untreated seedlings. Each probe gave a characteristic restriction fragment pattern, but rye- and wheat-origin probes behaved similarly, indicating that hypomethylation was induced in both genomes. In DNA samples from leaves taken 13-41 days after treatment, RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) patterns were indistinguishable from controls and 5-AC treatments with all probes. Surprising differences in hybridization patterns were seen between DNA from root tips and leaves with the copia-fragment probes. (+info)
Higher cardol homologs (5-alkylresorcinols) in rye seedlings.
The occurrence of alkylresorcinols, polyketide compounds that in the same homologous series as cardol isolated from Anacardium occidentale (cashew) or bilobol from Ginkgo biloba which are derivatives of 1,3-dihydroxy-5-alk(en)ylbenzene, have been demonstrated in developing rye (Secale cereale L.) kernels. The 3-day-old seedlings grown in sterile conditions already contain detectable amounts of phenolic compounds that were identified as alkylresorcinols. This fraction is the mixture of saturated and enoic homologs of various lengths of the aliphatic side chain. The composition of homologs is similar to that determined in mature grains. The relatively high level of alkylresorcinols in mitochondria and plastids (enhanced approximately twice in the absence of light) suggests that their synthetic pathway and/or biological function may be related to these cellular compartments. Resorcinolic lipids, when present in the external medium, are taken up by seedlings in the energy-dependent manner. (+info)
De novo evolution of satellite DNA on the rye B chromosome.
The most distinctive region of the rye B chromosome is a subtelomeric domain that contains an exceptional concentration of B-chromosome-specific sequences. At metaphase this domain appears to be the physical counterpart of the subtelomeric heterochromatic regions present on standard rye chromosomes, but its conformation at interphase is less condensed. In this report we show that the two sequence families that have been previously found to make up the bulk of the domain have been assembled from fragments of a variety of sequence elements, giving rise to their ostensibly foreign origin. A single mechanism, probably based on synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), is responsible for their assembly. We provide evidence for sequential evolution of one family on the B chromosome itself. The extent of these rearrangements and the complexity of the higher-order organization of the B-chromosome-specific families indicate that instability is a property of the domain itself, rather than of any single sequence. Indirect evidence suggests that particular fragments may have been selected to confer different properties on the domain and that rearrangements are frequently selected for their effect on DNA structure. The current organization appears to represent a transient stage in the evolution of a conventional heterochromatic region from complex sequences. (+info)
Thermal effect of CO(2) on apoplastic ice in rye and oat during freezing.
Meristematic tissues from rye (Secale cereale) and oat (Avena sativa) were studied in an isothermal calorimeter at -3 degrees C. When the frozen tissue was placed in the calorimeter, the pressure increased within 4 d to 25 and 9 kPa above ambient pressure in the sample vessels containing crowns of rye and oat, respectively. Concurrently, the thermal output went down to -194 microW in rye over the 4-d period; this negative thermal activity could be accounted for by ice melting in the plants. When the pressure was released, the output from the calorimeter went from -194 to 229 microW within 1 h, suggesting that water had frozen in the plants. We propose that CO(2) from respiration had dissolved in the water in the plants and caused melting of ice (heat absorption) due to the colligative properties of solutions. When the pressure was released, the CO(2) came out of solution and the water froze (heat evolution). These thermal observations were duplicated in a simplified, non-biological system using a glycol/water mixture that was partially frozen at -3 degrees C. (+info)