The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture.
Retinoic acid derivatives (retinoids) exert their pleiotropic effects on cell development through specific nuclear receptors, the retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors. Despite recent progress in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of retinoid activity, it is unknown which of the retinoid receptor pathways are involved in the specific processes of sebocyte growth and development. In this study, we investigated the roles of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation, by testing the effects of selective retinoic acid receptor and retinoid X receptor ligands at concentrations between 10-10 M and 10-6 M in a primary rat preputial cell monolayer culture system. Cell growth was determined by number of cells and colonies, and cell differentiation by analysis of lipid-forming colonies. All-trans retinoic acid and selective retinoic acid receptor agonists (CD271 = adapalene, an RAR-beta,gamma agonist; CD2043 = retinoic acid receptor pan-agonist; and CD336 = Am580, an RAR-alpha agonist) caused significant decreases in numbers of cells, colonies, and lipid-forming colonies, but with an exception at high doses of all-trans retinoic acid (10-6 M), with which only a small number of colonies grew but they became twice as differentiated as controls (42.2 +/- 4.0% vs 22.6 +/- 2.7%, mean +/- SEM, lipid-forming colonies, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the RAR-beta,gamma antagonist CD2665 antagonized the suppressive effects of all-trans retinoic acid, adapalene, and CD2043 on both cell growth and differentiation. In contrast, the retinoid X receptor agonist CD2809 increased cell growth slightly and lipid-forming colonies dramatically in a clear dose-related manner to a maximum of 73.7% +/- 6.7% at 10-6 M (p < 0. 001). Our data suggest that retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors differ in their roles in sebocyte growth and differentiation: (i) retinoic acid receptors, especially the beta and/or gamma subtypes, mediate both the antiproliferative and antidifferentiative effects of retinoids; (ii) retinoid X receptors mediate prominent differentiative and weak proliferative effects; (iii) the antiproliferative and antidifferentiative effects of all-trans retinoic acid are probably mediated by retinoic acid receptors, whereas its differentiative effect at high dose may be mediated by retinoid X receptors via all-trans retinoic acid metabolism to 9-cis retinoic acid, the natural ligand of retinoid X receptors. (+info)
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and aging: contribution of the DHEAge Study to a sociobiomedical issue.
The secretion and the blood levels of the adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DHEAS) decrease profoundly with age, and the question is posed whether administration of the steroid to compensate for the decline counteracts defects associated with aging. The commercial availability of DHEA outside the regular pharmaceutical-medical network in the United States creates a real public health problem that may be resolved only by appropriate long-term clinical trials in elderly men and women. Two hundred and eighty healthy individuals (women and men 60-79 years old) were given DHEA, 50 mg, or placebo, orally, daily for a year in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. No potentially harmful accumulation of DHEAS and active steroids was recorded. Besides the reestablishment of a "young" concentration of DHEAS, a small increase of testosterone and estradiol was noted, particularly in women, and may be involved in the significantly demonstrated physiological-clinical manifestations here reported. Bone turnover improved selectively in women >70 years old, as assessed by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) technique and the decrease of osteoclastic activity. A significant increase in most libido parameters was also found in these older women. Improvement of the skin status was observed, particularly in women, in terms of hydration, epidermal thickness, sebum production, and pigmentation. A number of biological indices confirmed the lack of harmful consequences of this 50 mg/day DHEA administration over one year, also indicating that this kind of replacement therapy normalized some effects of aging, but does not create "supermen/women" (doping). (+info)
13-cis retinoic acid exerts its specific activity on human sebocytes through selective intracellular isomerization to all-trans retinoic acid and binding to retinoid acid receptors.
Despite its potent biologic effect on human sebocytes, 13-cis retinoic acid exhibits low binding affinity for cellular retinoic acid binding proteins and nuclear retinoid receptors. Hence, 13-cis retinoic acid may represent a pro-drug possibly acting through all-trans isomerization. In this study, marked isomerization of 13-cis retinoic acid has been confirmed in cultured SZ95 sebocytes showing 2- to 15-fold higher levels of all-trans retinoic acid at 12-72 h, as measured by high performance liquid chromatography. In contrast, only low amounts of all-trans retinoic acid were converted intracellularly to its 13-cis isoform. 9-cis retinoic acid was not detected after either 13-cis retinoic acid or all-trans retinoic acid treatment. The rapid isomerization of 13-cis retinoic acid to high levels of all-trans retinoic acid was a sebocyte-specific event, as no significant isomerization of 13-cis retinoic acid to all-trans retinoic acid occurred in HaCaT keratinocytes. De novo mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 1A1, a major xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme, in SZ95 sebocytes was induced by all-trans retinoic acid, but not by 13-cis retinoic acid. In addition, mRNA levels of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II, which is supposed to regulate the concentration of intracellular all-trans retinoic acid, rapidly increased under all-trans retinoic acid treatment (30 min-6 h), whereas the 13-cis retinoic acid effect was markedly weaker and delayed. Both 13-cis retinoic acid and all-trans retinoic acid suppressed mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 1A2. In parallel experiments, 13-cis retinoic acid significantly reduced SZ95 sebocyte proliferation at 10-7 M, show- ing 30-40% inhibition after 9 d. All-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid exhibited similar anti-proliferative effects. AGN 193109, a pan-antagonist of the retinoic acid receptors, antagonized the anti-proliferative activity of all retinoic acid isomers tested in a concentration-dependent manner with complete abolishment at ratios of 1:10 13-cis retinoic acid and 1:1 all-trans retinoic acid. Coincubation of SZ95 sebocytes with 13-cis retinoic acid and AGN 193109 did not alter the intracellular concentration of 13-cis retinoic acid and its isomerization profile. In contrast, the retinoid X receptor antagonist CD 3507 did not affect the inhibition of SZ95 sebocyte proliferation induced by retinoic acids. Our findings indicate: (i) a selective 13-cis retinoic acid isomerization to all-trans retinoic acid in the intracellular compartment of SZ95 sebocytes; (ii) a reduced all-trans retinoic acid inactivation process after 13-cis retinoic acid treatment as compared with treatment with all-trans retinoic acid; and (iii) a retinoic acid receptor-mediated inhibition of SZ95 sebocyte proliferation. These data explain the sebocyte-specific activity of 13-cis retinoic acid and support a pro-drug/drug relation between 13-cis retinoic acid and all-trans retinoic acid. (+info)
The melanocortin 5 receptor is expressed in human sebaceous glands and rat preputial cells.
Melanocortins regulate pigmentation, adrenal hormone secretion, immune functions, lipid metabolism, and feeding behaviors in rodents. These peptides include adrenocorticotrophic hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone, beta-lipotrophin, and the endorphins. Lipid metabolism in sebaceous glands and preputial glands of rodents is regulated by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, the major agonist for melanocortin receptors. Five melanocortin receptor subtypes have been identified that differ in their tissue localization and affinities for melanocortin ligands. Targeted disruption of the melanocortin 5 receptor in transgenic mice results in widespread dysfunction of exocrine glands, including a marked decrease in sebum production. A role for melanocortins in the modulation of human sebum production has not been established. The goal of this study is to determine which melanocortin receptors are expressed in human sebaceous glands. Messenger RNA was isolated from human sebaceous glands and the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed using primers specific for each of the melanocortin receptor subtypes. Transcripts were detected for the melanocortin 5 receptor. A polyclonal chicken antihuman antibody to the melanocortin 5 receptor localized to sebaceous glands, eccrine glands, hair follicles, and epidermis in human skin, rat skin, cultured human sebocytes, and rat preputial cells. Presence of the melanocortin 5 receptor protein in human sebaceous glands and rat preputial glands was further verified by Western blotting. These data support further investigation of the role of melanocortins in the regulation of human sebum production and support the use of the rat preputial system as an experimental model in sebaceous gland physiology. (+info)
Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a possible method to investigate biophysical parameters of stratum corneum in vivo.
We investigated the use of attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a method to study differences in the molecular components of human stratum corneum in vivo. These variations as a function of the anatomic site and of the depth into its layered structure are important to understand the biology and physiology of the tissue. In this preliminary study we have investigated spectroscopic changes in 18 healthy individuals. Total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy represents a potentially powerful tool to study biophysical properties of surfaces. We observed that, in vivo, biophysical parameters of the stratum corneum (such as hydration, lipid composition, and conformation of the aliphatic chains) are indeed dependent on the anatomic site. As in total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments the penetration depth of the evanescent field into the stratum corneum is comparable with the thickness of a layer of corneocytes, this technique can be used to follow the distribution of lipids, water, and proteins as a function of depth into the tissue. We found that, in vivo, these molecular components are non-uniformly distributed, in agreement with the presence of water and lipid reservoirs as observed with ex vivo ultrastructural investigations. Composition and conformational order of lipids are also a function of depth into the stratum corneum. Finally we compared the in vivo superficial hydration measured using the infrared absorption of the OH stretch of water, with the hydration measured using the Skicon hygrometer. Our results indicate that total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy might be useful to measure important chemical and biophysical parameters of stratum corneum in vivo. (+info)
The influence of two azones and sebaceous lipids on the lateral organization of lipids isolated from human stratum corneum.
The main problem with topical application of compounds to administer drugs to and regulate drug levels in a human body, is the barrier formed by the intercellular lipid matrix of the stratum corneum (SC). In a search for possibilities to overcome this barrier function, a good understanding of the organization and phase behavior of these lipids is required. SC lipid model studies especially provide a wealth of information with respect to the lipid organization and the importance of certain subclasses of lipids for the structure. Previously, we have shown that electron diffraction (ED) provides detailed information on the lateral lipid packing in both intact SC (G.S.K. Pilgram et al., J. Invest. Dermatol. 113 (1999) 403) and SC lipid models (G.S.K. Pilgram et al., J. Lipid Res. 39 (1998) 1669). In the present study, we used ED to examine the influence of two azones and sebaceous lipids on the lateral phase behavior of lipids isolated from human SC. We established that human SC lipids are arranged in an orthorhombic packing pattern. Upon mixing with the two enhancers the orthorhombic packing pattern was still observed; however, an additional fluid phase became more apparent. In mixtures with sebaceous lipids, the presence of the hexagonal lattice increased. These findings provide a basis for the mechanism by which these enhancers and sebaceous lipids interact with human SC lipids. (+info)
Sebocytes are the key regulators of androgen homeostasis in human skin.
The mRNA expression patterns of the androgen receptor and the androgen metabolizing enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5-4)-isomerase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 5alpha-reductase, and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were investigated in three different cell populations originating from human skin, SZ95 sebocytes, HaCaT keratinocytes, and MeWo melanoma cells, by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Restriction analysis of cDNA fragments was performed to identify isozymes of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5-4)-isomerase and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. In addition, 3H-dihydroepiandrosterone and 3H-testosterone were used as substrates to determine the metabolic activity of these enzymes in SZ95 sebocytes, primary sebocyte cultures, and HaCaT keratinocytes. Furthermore, the effects of the selective 5alpha-reductase type 1 and 2 inhibitors, 4,7beta-dimethyl-4-aza-5alpha-cholestan-3-one and dihydrofinasteride, respectively, and of the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5-4)-isomerase inhibitor cyproterone acetate on androgen metabolism were investigated. Androgen receptor mRNA was detected in SZ95 sebocytes and HaCaT keratinocytes but not in MeWo melanoma cells, whereas 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5-4)-isomerase isotype 1 mRNA and metabolic activity were only found in SZ95 sebocytes. The enzyme activity could be inhibited by cyproterone acetate. Type 2 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type 1 5alpha-reductase, and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA were expressed in all three cell populations tested, whereas type 3 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA could only be detected in SZ95 sebocytes. The major metabolic steps of testosterone in SZ95 sebocytes, primary sebocyte cultures, and HaCaT keratinocytes were its conversion to androstenedione by 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and further to 5alpha-androstanedione by 5alpha-reductase. The type 1 5alpha-reductase selective inhibitor 4,7beta-dimethyl-4-aza-5alpha-cholestan-3-one, but not the type 2 selective inhibitor dihydrofinasteride, inhibited 5alpha-reductase at low concentrations in SZ95 sebocytes and HaCaT keratinocytes. 5alpha-androstanedione was degraded to androsterone by 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which exhibited a stronger activity in HaCaT keratinocytes than in SZ95 sebocytes and in primary sebocyte cultures. Lower levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 5alpha-androstanediol were also detected in all cells tested. Our investigations show that specific enzyme expression and activity in cultured sebocytes and keratinocytes seem to allocate different duties to these cells in vitro. Sebocytes are able to synthesize testosterone from adrenal precursors and to inactivate it in order to maintain androgen homeostasis, whereas keratinocytes are responsible for androgen degradation. (+info)
Why do we have apocrine and sebaceous glands?
The secretions of sebaceous and apocrine glands fulfil an important thermoregulatory role in cold-stressed and heat-stressed hunter-gatherers. In hot conditions the secretions emulsify eccrine sweat and thus encourage the formation of a sweat sheet and discourage the formation and loss of sweat drops from the skin. In colder conditions sebum changes its nature and repels rain from skin and hair. (+info)