(1/77) High frequency of codon 61 K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice exposed to chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) for 2 years, and comparisons with the structurally related chemicals isoprene and 1,3-butadiene.
Chloroprene is the 2-chloro analog of 1,3-butadiene, a potent carcinogen in laboratory animals. Following 2 years of inhalation exposure to 12.8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene, increased incidences of lung and Harderian gland (HG) neoplasms were observed in B6C3F1 mice at all exposure concentrations. The present study was designed to characterize genetic alterations in the K- and H-ras proto-oncogenes in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 80% of chloroprene-induced lung neoplasms (37/46) compared with only 30% in spontaneous lung neoplasms (25/82). Both K- and H-ras codon 61 A-->T transversions were identified in 100% of HG neoplasms (27/27) compared with a frequency of 56% (15/27) in spontaneous HG neoplasms. The predominant mutation in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This mutation has not been detected in spontaneous lung tumors of B6C3F1 mice and was identified in only 7% of spontaneous HG neoplasms. In lung neoplasms, greater percentages (80 and 71%) of A-->T transversions were observed at the lower exposures (12.8 and 32 p.p.m.), respectively, compared with 18% at the high exposure. In HG neoplasms, the percentage of A-->T transversions was the same at all exposure concentrations. The chloroprene-induced ras mutation spectra was similar to that seen with isoprene, where the predominant base change was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This differed from 1,3-butadiene, where K-ras codon 13 G-->C transitions and H-ras codon 61 A-->G transitions were the predominant mutations. The major finding of K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms suggests that this mutation may be important for tumor induction by this class of carcinogens. (+info)
(2/77) Microsatellite instability in benign skin lesions in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome.
The coexistence of cutaneous and extra-cutaneous malignancies within one family could be explained by shared genetic mechanisms such as common tumor suppressor gene mutations or oncogene activation, as well as mutations in DNA repair genes. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (HNPCC) and its variant Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) are caused by germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutations. Colonic and endometrial tumors from HNPCC patients exhibit microsatellite instability (MSI), as do sebaceous lesions in MTS. We recruited individuals from cancer prone families to determine if MSI is found in benign and malignant skin lesions and to assess whether MSI in the skin is predictive of genomic instability with susceptibility to tumors characteristic of HNPCC. One hundred and fifteen benign, dysplastic, and malignant skin lesions from 39 cancer prone families were analyzed. Thirteen benign skin lesions from three individuals belonging to two HNPCC pedigrees showed MSI. No mutations in hMSH2 and hMLH1 were found in two of the three individuals with RER + skin lesions. We found MSI in non-sebaceous non-dysplastic skin lesions in HNPCC pedigrees. MSI was not found in skin lesions within other family cancer syndromes. These results have important clinical implications as the detection of MSI in prevalent readily accessible skin lesions could form the basis of noninvasive screening for HNPCC families. It may also be a valuable tool in the search for new mismatch repair genes. (+info)
(3/77) Muir-Torre-like syndrome in Fhit-deficient mice.
To investigate the role of the Fhit gene in carcinogen induction of neoplasia, we have inactivated one Fhit allele in mouse embryonic stem cells and produced (129/SvJ x C57BL/6J) F(1) mice with a Fhit allele inactivated (+/-). Fhit +/+ and +/- mice were treated intragastrically with nitrosomethylbenzylamine and observed for 10 wk posttreatment. A total of 25% of the +/+ mice developed adenoma or papilloma of the forestomach, whereas 100% of the +/- mice developed multiple tumors that were a mixture of adenomas, squamous papillomas, invasive carcinomas of the forestomach, as well as tumors of sebaceous glands. The visceral and sebaceous tumors, which lacked Fhit protein, were similar to those characteristic of Muir-Torre familial cancer syndrome. (+info)
(4/77) Microsatellite instability and expression of hMLH-1 and hMSH-2 in sebaceous gland carcinomas as markers for Muir-Torre syndrome.
Sebaceous gland carcinomas (SGCs) are rare malignant skin tumors occurring sporadically or as a phenotypic feature of the Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS). A subset of patients with MTS have a variant of the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome caused by mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, which lead to microsatellite instability (MSI). We evaluated the value of MSI and loss of expression of the MMR genes, hMLH-1 and hMSH-2, as a marker to identify and distinguish MTS from sporadic SGC. Using a nationwide pathology report database system, we identified patients with the MTS phenotype. SGCs from 10 MTS patients and the colorectal carcinomas from 3 additional MTS patients were collected. In addition, SGCs from eight patients without a history of visceral neoplasm were collected. MSI was detected in 9 of 13 MTS-associated tumors (69%) versus 0 of 8 sporadic SGCs (P = 0.002). Except for the age of onset of colorectal carcinoma [58 years in the MSI-positive group versus 69.8 years in the MSI-negative group (P = 0.17)], no differences were seen between the MSI-negative and the MSI-positive MTS patients. Loss of expression of hMLH-1 (n = 4) or hMSH-2 (n = 4) was found in MSI-positive patients only. MSI and loss of expression of MMR genes can be used as markers for MTS in patients with SGC. Consequently, MSI and loss of MMR gene expression in a patient presenting with SGC as the initial malignancy have important consequences for the patient and family. There are at least two variants of MTS with different molecular genetic mechanisms because 31% of the patients with the MTS phenotype had no MSI. (+info)
(5/77) Sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelids: frequent expression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein.
Ocular sebaceous carcinoma (OSC) is an uncommon malignancy with a potential to recur and metastasize. Some characteristics of sebaceous carcinoma, such as female preponderance, shown in the present series during 11-year period at Korea Cancer Center Hospital, led us to study their hormone receptors and c-erbB-2 expression. c-erbB-2 overexpression was very common (83%) in OSC, and was not associated with pathologic findings or clinical outcome. Interestingly, estrogen and progesterone receptor was detected in 4 and 2 cases, respectively, suggesting a role of hormonal influence on this neoplasm. Immunohistochemical and clinicopathologic features of 18 cases of OSC in Korea are presented. (+info)
(6/77) An association between sebaceous carcinoma and microsatellite instability in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients.
Sebaceous carcinomas are rare cutaneous appendageal tumors that may occur sporadically or in association with an internal malignancy in Muir-Torre syndrome. In Muir-Torre syndrome microsatellite instability can often be demonstrated in tumor DNA as a result of an inherited mutation in one of several known mismatch repair genes; however, the role of microsatellite instability in sporadic sebaceous carcinomas has not been previously studied. In this report we describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of a series of unselected sebaceous carcinomas and examine them for the presence of microsatellite instability. Of 10 consecutive tumors identified over a 10 y period, only one was from a patient known to have Muir-Torre syndrome. Of the nine presumed sporadic cases, five were from four renal transplant recipients and four from otherwise healthy individuals. Microsatellite instability was demonstrable in three cases: in the Muir-Torre syndrome-associated tumor and in two tumors from transplant patients. Microsatellite instability was subsequently also found in a sebaceous carcinoma from a further transplant patient prospectively sought from another institution. The presence of microsatellite instability in post-transplant sebaceous carcinomas was associated with loss of expression of the mismatch repair protein hMSH2. In summary, sebaceous gland carcinomas, while characteristic of Muir-Torre syndrome, are commonly found outside this context. Among presumed sporadic cases, our data suggest they may be over-represented in immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients. The presence of microsatellite instability in transplant-associated lesions, together with loss of hMSH2 expression suggests that immunosuppression might unmask a previously silent Muir-Torre syndrome phenotype in some cases. Alternatively, there is experimental evidence to suggest that immunosuppressive drugs, most plausibly azathioprine, could select for the emergence of a mutator phenotype and thus predispose to the development of sebaceous carcinomas. The role of mismatch repair defects in other post-transplant skin malignancies remains to be established. (+info)
(7/77) "Second hit" in sebaceous tumors from Muir-Torre patients with germline mutations in MSH2: allele loss is not the preferred mode of inactivation.
Muir-Torre syndrome is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder predisposing to both sebaceous skin tumors and internal neoplasms. In a significant proportion of Muir-Torre syndrome patients skin tumors exhibit microsatellite instability as a hallmark of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Most individuals predisposed to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer harbor a germline mutation in the DNA mismatch repair genes MSH2 or MLH1. In Muir-Torre syndrome the vast majority of germline mutations have been identified in MSH2. Microsatellite instability in tumor tissue develops after somatic inactivation of the corresponding second mismatch repair allele ("second hit"). So far, the mechanisms of somatic inactivation of the second allele in microsatellite instability positive tumors from patients with known mismatch repair germline mutations are not well understood. We examined whether allele loss (loss of heterozygosity) is a frequent mechanism for inactivation of the second MSH2 allele in a sample of nine microsatellite instability positive skin tumors from eight unrelated Muir-Torre patients with known MSH2 germline mutations. Loss of heterozygosity was determined using microsatellite markers or heteroduplex analysis, respectively. Only one of the nine skin tumors exhibited loss of heterozygosity at the MSH2 locus. Thus, we could show in a sample of sebaceous tumors from patients with genetically proven Muir-Torre syndrome that loss of heterozygosity most probably is not the preferred mode of somatic inactivation of the second MSH2 allele. (+info)
(8/77) 15-Lipoxygenase-2 expression in benign and neoplastic sebaceous glands and other cutaneous adnexa.
15-Lipoxygenase-2 has a limited tissue distribution in epithelial tissues, with mRNA detected in skin, cornea, lung, and prostate. It was originally cloned from human hair rootlets. In this study the distribution of 15-lipoxygenase-2 was characterized in human skin using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Strong uniform 15-lipoxygenase-2 in situ hybridization (n = 6) and immunostaining (n = 16) were observed in benign cutaneous sebaceous glands, with expression in differentiated secretory cells. Strong 15-lipoxygenase-2 immunostaining was also observed in secretory cells of apocrine and eccrine glands. Variable reduced immunostaining was observed in skin-derived sebaceous neoplasms (n = 8). In the eyelid, Meibomian glands were uniformly negative for 15-lipoxygenase-2 in all cases examined (n = 9), and sebaceous carcinomas apparently derived from Meibomian glands were also negative (n = 12). The mechanisms responsible for differential expression in cutaneous sebaceous vs eyelid Meibomian glands remain to be established. In epidermis, positive immunostaining was observed in the basal cell layer in normal skin, whereas five examined basal cell carcinomas were negative. Thus, the strongest 15-lipoxygenase-2 expression is in the androgen regulated secretory cells of sebaceous, apocrine, and eccrine glands. This compares with the prostate, in which 15-lipoxygenase-2 is expressed in differentiated prostate secretory cells (and reduced in the majority of prostate adenocarcinomas). The product of 15-lipoxygenase-2, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, may be a ligand for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma, which is expressed in sebocytes, and contribute to secretory differentiation in androgen regulated tissues such as prostate and sebaceous glands. (+info)