An early salicylic acid-, pathogen- and elicitor-inducible tobacco glucosyltransferase: role in compartmentalization of phenolics and H2O2 metabolism.
Treatment of tobacco cell suspension cultures with a fungal elicitor of defense responses resulted in an early accumulation of the phenylpropanoid glucosyltransferase TOGT, along with the rapid synthesis and secretion of scopolin, the glucoside of scopoletin. Elicitor-triggered extracellular accumulation of the aglycone scopoletin and of free caffeic and ferulic acids could only be revealed in the presence of diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of extracellular H2O2 production. Our results strongly support a role for TOGT in the elicitor-stimulated production of transportable phenylpropanoid glucosides, followed by the release of free antioxidant phenolics into the extracellular medium and subsequent H2O2 scavenging. (+info)
Hydrogen peroxide from the oxidative burst is neither necessary nor sufficient for hypersensitive cell death induction, phenylalanine ammonia lyase stimulation, salicylic acid accumulation, or scopoletin consumption in cultured tobacco cells treated with elicitin.
H(2)O(2) from the oxidative burst, cell death, and defense responses such as the production of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), salicylic acid (SA), and scopoletin were analyzed in cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells treated with three proteinaceous elicitors: two elicitins (alpha-megaspermin and beta-megaspermin) and one glycoprotein. These three proteins have been isolated from Phytophthora megasperma H20 and have been previously shown to be equally efficient in inducing a hypersensitive response (HR) upon infiltration into tobacco leaves. However, in cultured tobacco cells these elicitors exhibited strikingly different biological activities. beta-Megaspermin was the only elicitor that caused cell death and induced a strong, biphasic H(2)O(2) burst. Both elicitins stimulated PAL activity similarly and strongly, while the glycoprotein caused only a slight increase. Only elicitins induced SA accumulation and scopoletin consumption, and beta-megaspermin was more efficient. To assess the role of H(2)O(2) in HR cell death and defense response expression in elicitin-treated cells, a gain and loss of function strategy was used. Our results indicated that H(2)O(2) was neither necessary nor sufficient for HR cell death, PAL activation, or SA accumulation, and that extracellular H(2)O(2) was not a direct cause of intracellular scopoletin consumption. (+info)
H(2)O(2) detection from intact mitochondria as a measure for one-electron reduction of dioxygen requires a non-invasive assay system.
Evaluation of the existence of superoxide radicals (O*-(2)), the site of generation and conditions required for one-e(-) transfer to oxygen from biological redox systems is a prerequisite for the understanding of the deregulation of O(2) homeostasis leading to oxidative stress. Mitochondria are increasingly considered the major O*-(2) source in a great variety of diseases and the aging process. Contradictory reports on mitochondrial O*-(2) release prompted us to critically investigate frequently used O*-(2) detection methods for their suitability. Due to the impermeability of the external mitochondrial membrane for most constituents of O*-(2) detection systems we decided to follow the stable dismutation product H(2)O(2). This metabolite was earlier shown to readily permeate into the cytosol. With the exception of tetramethylbenzidine none of the chemical reactants indicating the presence of H(2)O(2) by horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed absorbance change were suited due to solubility problems or low extinction coefficients. Tetramethylbenzidine-dependent H(2)O(2) detection was counteracted by rereduction of the dye through e(-) carriers of the respiratory chain. Although the fluorescent dyes scopoletin and homovanillic acid were found to be suited for the detection of mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release, fluorescence change was strongly affected by mitochondrial protein constituents. The present study has resolved this problem by separating the detection system from H(2)O(2)-producing mitochondria. (+info)
Are mitochondria a permanent source of reactive oxygen species?
The observation that in isolated mitochondria electrons may leak out of the respiratory chain to form superoxide radicals (O(2)(radical-)) has prompted the assumption that O(2)(radical-) formation is a compulsory by-product of respiration. Since mitochondrial O(2)(radical-) formation under homeostatic conditions could not be demonstrated in situ so far, conclusions drawn from isolated mitochondria must be considered with precaution. The present study reveals a link between electron deviation from the respiratory chain to oxygen and the coupling state in the presence of antimycin A. Another important factor is the analytical system applied for the detection of activated oxygen species. Due to the presence of superoxide dismutase in mitochondria, O(2)(radical-) release cannot be realistically determined in intact mitochondria. We therefore followed the release of the stable dismutation product H(2)O(2) by comparing most frequently used H(2)O(2) detection methods. The possible interaction of the detection systems with the respiratory chain was avoided by a recently developed method, which was compared with conventional methods. Irrespective of the methods applied, the substrates used for respiration and the state of respiration established, intact mitochondria could not be made to release H(2)O(2) from dismutating O(2)(radical-). Although regular mitochondrial respiration is unlikely to supply single electrons for O(2)(radical-) formation our study does not exclude the possibility of the respiratory chain becoming a radical source under certain conditions. (+info)
Characterization of 2-[[4-[[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylmethyl)phenyl]methoxy]methyl]quinoline N-glucuronidation by in vitro and in vivo approaches.
RG 12525 is a new chemical entity recently evaluated for the treatment of type II diabetes. Clinical studies have previously identified the tetrazole N2-glucuronide conjugate of RG 12525 as the predominant metabolite in plasma following oral administration of RG 12525. Species differences in RG 12525 glucuronidation were first investigated with incubations of RG 12525 with rat, monkey, and human hepatocytes. The results showed the N2-glucuronide to be the major metabolite in human and monkey samples, with only low levels observed for the rat. The formation of this glucuronide by human liver microsomes was subsequently characterized. RG 12525 N2-glucuronidation was found to have a pH optimum of 7.0 to 7.5 and demonstrated a high affinity with a K(m) range of 16.6 to 21.1 microM RG 12525 (n = 3). The rate of N2-glucuronide formation ranged from 2.5 to 15.4 nmol of RG 12525 N2-glucuronide formed/min/mg of protein ( approximately 6-fold) in the 21 samples assayed. The reaction was inhibited by known substrates for glucuronidation, with imipramine (62%), naringenin (44%), and scopoletin (38%) producing the largest degree of inhibition at equimolar concentrations of substrate and inhibitor. Of the eight expressed UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) forms assayed, UGT1A1 and 1A3 displayed the highest rate of RG 12525 N2-glucuronidation (0.109 and 0.125 nmol/min/mg, respectively). Finally, low levels of N2-glucuronidation of RG 12525 by human jejunum microsomes were demonstrated, suggesting that presystemic clearance via glucuronidation may constitute a barrier to bioavailability. (+info)
Effect of scopoletin on PC3 cell proliferation and apoptosis.
AIM: To investigate the effect of scopoletin on cell proliferation and apoptosis of PC3 cells. METHODS: Cell growth curve, MTT assay, and acid phosphatase activity (ACP) were used to determine cell proliferation. Coomassie brilliant blue assay was used to measure the content of protein in cells. Light microscope, transmission electronmicroscope, and fluorescence microscope were used to observe scopoletin-induced morphological changes. Apoptosis rate and cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The IC50 of scopoletin for inhibiting PC3, PAA, and Hela cell proliferation was (157 +/- 25), (154 +/- 51), and (294 +/- 100) mg/L, respectively. Scopoletin induced a marked time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of PC3 cell proliferation. Scopoletin reduced the protein content and decreased the ACP level in PC3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Cells treated by scopoletin showed typical morphologic changes of apoptosis by light microscope, fluorescence microscope, and transmission electronmicroscope. Apoptosis rate was 0.3 %, 2.1 %, 9.3 % and 35 % for scopoletin 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/L, respectively, and cells in G2 phase decreased markedly after being treated with scopoletin. CONCLUSION: Scopoletin inhibited PC3 proliferation by inducing apoptosis of PC3 cells. (+info)
Downregulation of a pathogen-responsive tobacco UDP-Glc:phenylpropanoid glucosyltransferase reduces scopoletin glucoside accumulation, enhances oxidative stress, and weakens virus resistance.
Plant UDP-Glc:phenylpropanoid glucosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the transfer of Glc from UDP-Glc to numerous substrates and regulate the activity of compounds that play important roles in plant defense against pathogens. We previously characterized two tobacco salicylic acid- and pathogen-inducible UGTs (TOGTs) that act very efficiently on the hydroxycoumarin scopoletin and on hydroxycinnamic acids. To identify the physiological roles of these UGTs in plant defense, we generated TOGT-depleted tobacco plants by antisense expression. After inoculation with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), TOGT-inhibited plants exhibited a significant decrease in the glucoside form of scopoletin (scopolin) and a decrease in scopoletin UGT activity. Unexpectedly, free scopoletin levels also were reduced in TOGT antisense lines. Scopolin and scopoletin reduction in TOGT-depleted lines resulted in a strong decrease of the blue fluorescence in cells surrounding TMV lesions and was associated with weakened resistance to infection with TMV. Consistent with the proposed role of scopoletin as a reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) scavenger, TMV also triggered a more sustained ROI accumulation in TOGT-downregulated lines. Our results demonstrate the involvement of TOGT in scopoletin glucosylation in planta and provide evidence of the crucial role of a UGT in plant defense responses. We propose that TOGT-mediated glucosylation is required for scopoletin accumulation in cells surrounding TMV lesions, where this compound could both exert a direct antiviral effect and participate in ROI buffering. (+info)
Molecular cloning and biological activity of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-megaspermin, three elicitins secreted by Phytophthora megasperma H20.
We report on the molecular cloning of the Phytophthora megasperma H20 (PmH20) glycoprotein shown previously as an inducer of the hypersensitive response, of localized acquired resistance and of systemic acquired resistance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and of the PmH20 alpha- and beta-megaspermin, two elicitins of class I-A and I-B, respectively. The structure of the glycoprotein shows a signal peptide of 20 amino acids followed by the typical elicitin 98-amino acid-long domain and a 77-amino acid-long C-terminal domain carrying an O-glycosylated moiety. The molecular mass deduced from the translated cDNA sequence is 14,920 and 18,676 D as determined by mass spectrometry. This structure together with multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the glycoprotein belongs to class III elicitins. It is the first class III elicitin protein characterized, which we named gamma-megaspermin. We compared the biological activity of the three PmH20 elicitins when applied to tobacco cv Samsun NN plants. Although alpha- and gamma-megaspermin were similarly active, beta-megaspermin was the most active in inducing the hypersensitive response and localized acquired resistance, which was assessed by measuring the levels of acidic and basic pathogenesis-related proteins and of the antioxidant phytoalexin scopoletin. The three elicitins induced similar levels of systemic acquired resistance measured as the expression of acidic PR proteins and is increased resistance to challenge tobacco mosaic virus infection. (+info)