(1/38) Comparison of surgical outcomes between small collagen and chromic catgut implants in deep sclerectomy.

In deep sclerectomy, collagen implant has been used to maintain space under the scleral flap. However, the effect of other implants has not been studied. In this retrospective study, we compared surgical outcomes between small collagen and chromic catgut used as implants in deep sclerectomy. Deep sclerectomy was performed on 23 patients (25 eyes) who either had an open angle and a high intraocular pressure (IOP) (> 22 mmHg) in spite of receiving the maximal tolerable medical treatment, or who were intolerant to medications. Our study consisted of 14 patients (15 eyes) in the small collagen group and 8 (9 eyes) in the chromic catgut group. The mean follow-up period was 8.6 +/- 3.3 months in the small collagen group and 4.4 +/- 1.2 months in the chromic catgut group. The mean preoperative IOP was not significantly different between the two groups. The complete success rate of the small collagen group was significantly better than that of the chromic catgut group at the final follow-up when data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve (87% versus 30%; P = .01). As for the qualified success rate, the small collagen group showed significantly better results at the final follow-up (93% versus 80%; P = .046). The mean number of postoperative medications was significantly lower in the small collagen group (0.26 versus 1.10; P < .05). These results confirmed that the use of small collagen implant in deep sclerectomy produced a higher success rate and a lowered need for postoperative medication compared to the use of chromic catgut implant. Because equal sized implants were used, the difference in biochemical properties, particularly the severity of inflammation caused by the implant, is presumed to be the cause of the different surgical outcomes.  (+info)

(2/38) A prospective randomised trial of viscocanalostomy with and without implantation of a reticulated hyaluronic acid implant (SKGEL) in open angle glaucoma.

AIM: To prospectively assess the efficacy and complications of viscocanalostomy with a reticulated hyaluronic acid implant (VSRHAI) versus standard viscocanalostomy in patients with medically uncontrolled open angle glaucoma. METHODS: A consecutive series of 40 patients (40 eyes) with uncontrolled open angle glaucoma underwent non-penetrating antiglaucomatous surgery. After the excision of the deep scleral flap they were randomly assigned to either a standard viscocanalostomy or additional implantation of a reticulated hyaluronic acid implant. Follow up visits were over a period of 12 months after surgery. RESULTS: The mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) was 26.5 (SD 6.1) mm Hg for all patients enrolled. The mean IOP was 8.1 (SD 5.6) mm Hg 1 day after surgery for the viscocanalostomy group (p<0.001) and 12.0 (SD 5.2) mm Hg for the VSRHAI group (p<0.001). The postoperative IOP difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.03). The success rate, defined as an IOP lower than 22 mm Hg without medication, was 40% in both groups at 12 months postoperatively (p = 0.90). The number of postoperative complications was equally low for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Both surgical procedures, viscocanalostomy and VSRHAI, provide comparable success rates over a 1 year follow up period. The specific intraoperative and postoperative complications of non-penetrating surgery were seen in our series, although the overall rate of postoperative complications proved equally low for both techniques.  (+info)

(3/38) The use of cytosine arabinoside in glaucoma filtering surgery.

Posterior lip sclerectomies were performed in rabbits and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) was applied by topical instillation or subconjunctival injection. In both groups, the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) of the treated eyes was significantly lowered at postoperative week 1 and 2, but there was no significant difference between the mean IOP of the control eyes and that of the treated eyes at postoperative week 3 and 4. In both groups, at postoperative week 2, the sclerectomy sites of the control eyes were totally occluded by granulation tissue, but those of the treated eyes were partially replaced by granulation tissue. At postoperative week 4, the sclerectomy sites of the treated eyes were totally occluded by the granulation tissue ultimately in both groups. There were no differences in the mean IOP and the histologic finding of the treated eyes between the topical instillation group and the subconjunctival injection group. We concluded that either topical instillation or subconjunctival injection of Ara-C can delay wound healing at the surgical site after glaucoma filtering surgery in rabbits.  (+info)

(4/38) Scleral plug of biodegradable polymers containing tacrolimus (FK506) for experimental uveitis.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of a biodegradable polymeric scleral plug containing the immunosuppressive agent, FK506, in a rabbit model for experimental uveitis. METHODS: The scleral plugs were prepared by dissolving poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide; PLGA) and FK506 (weight, 8.5 mg; length, 5 mm; 1% FK506). The release of FK506 was evaluated in vitro by spectrophotometry on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35. In vivo, FK506 concentrations of the vitreous were measured by high performance liquid chromatography 2 and 4 weeks after intravitreous plug implantation in pigmented rabbits. Sixteen pigmented rabbits were immunized twice subcutaneously with 10 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra antigen. Twelve days later, the right eyes of all rabbits were challenged with an intravitreal injection of 50 micro g of antigen. After the first challenge, the 16 eyes of 16 pigmented rabbits were divided into two groups. Scleral plugs were implanted into the vitreous of the right eye of eight rabbits. Eight control rabbits received a sham device. The aqueous protein concentrations and cell counts were determined on postchallenge days 7, 14, and 28. To simulated chronic inflammation, the eyes were rechallenged with intravitreal antigen on day 14 and were observed for 1 month. Inflammation of the anterior chamber and the vitreous were graded clinically by two masked observers. Retinal function was evaluated by electroretinography (ERG) and histologic examination. RESULTS: Clinical scores (anterior chamber cells, flare, and vitreous opacity) showed that treated eyes had significantly less inflammation than untreated eyes (P<0.001). Quantitative analysis of inflammatory cells (P<0.001) and protein concentrations (P<0.0001) in the anterior chamber showed significant decreases in treated eyes. Histopathologic examination showed marked inflammation and tissue disorganization in the untreated eyes. No retinal toxicity was detected, histopathologically and electroretinographically. After antigen rechallenge, inflammation in experimental eyes was still less than in control eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal sustained-release of FK506 from a biodegradable polymeric scleral plug was highly effective in suppressing the inflammation of experimental uveitis in a rabbit model for at least 6 weeks. This device may be useful in the management of patients with severe chronic uveitis.  (+info)

(5/38) Aqueous dynamic and histological findings after deep sclerectomy with collagen implant in an animal model.

AIM: The use of an animal model to study the aqueous dynamic and the histological findings after deep sclerectomy with (DSCI) and without collagen implant. METHODS: Deep sclerectomy was performed on rabbits' eyes. Eyes were randomly assigned to receive collagen implants. Measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) and aqueous outflow facility using the constant pressure method through cannulation of the anterior chamber were performed. The system was filled with BSS and cationised ferritin. Histological assessment of the operative site was performed. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and with Prussian blue. Aqueous drainage vessels were identified by the reaction between ferritin and Prussian blue. All eyes were coded so that the investigator was blind to the type of surgery until the evaluation was completed. RESULTS: A significant decrease in IOP (p<0.05) was observed during the first 6 weeks after DSCI (mean IOP was 13.07 (2.95) mm Hg preoperatively and 9.08 (2.25) mm Hg at 6 weeks); DS without collagen implant revealed a significant decrease in IOP at weeks 4 and 8 after surgery (mean IOP 12.57 (3.52) mm Hg preoperatively, 9.45 (3.38) mm Hg at 4 weeks, and 9.22 (3.39) mm Hg at 8 weeks). Outflow facility was significantly increased throughout the 9 months of follow up in both DSCI and DS groups (p<0.05). The preoperative outflow facility (OF) was 0.15 (0.02) micro l/min/mm Hg. At 9 months, OF was 0.52 (0.28) microl/min/mm Hg and 0.46 (0.07) micro l/min/mm Hg for DSCI and DS respectively. Light microscopy studies showed the appearance of new aqueous drainage vessels in the sclera adjacent to the dissection site in DSCI and DS and the apparition of spindle cells lining the collagen implant in DSCI after 2 months. CONCLUSION: A significant IOP decrease was observed during the first weeks after DSCI and DS. DS with or without collagen implant provided a significant increase in outflow facility throughout the 9 months of follow up. This might be partly explained by new drainage vessels in the sclera surrounding the operated site. Microscopic studies revealed the appearance of spindle cells lining the collagen implant in DSCI after 2 months.  (+info)

(6/38) Comparative study between deep sclerectomy with and without collagen implant: long term follow up.

AIM: To identify the value of using collagen implant in deep sclerectomy. METHODS: A prospective randomised trial of 104 eyes (104 patients) with medically uncontrolled primary and secondary open angle glaucoma. All patients had deep sclerectomy (DS), half of them with and the other half without a collagen implant (CI) sutured in the scleral bed. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, number of treatments preoperative and postoperative, and Nd:YAG goniopunctures. RESULTS: Mean follow up period was 44.5 (SD 21) months for the DS group and 43.9 (SD 14) months for the deep sclerectomy with a collagen implant (DSCI) group. The mean preoperative IOP was 23.3 (SD 7.2) mm Hg for the DS group and 25.6 (SD 4.9) mm Hg for the DSCI group. The mean IOP at the first postoperative day was 6.1 (SD 4.21) mm Hg for the DS group and 5.1 (SD 3.3) mm Hg for the DSCI group. At 48 months IOP was reduced by 40% (14 versus 23.3 mm Hg) for the DS group and by 50% (12.7 versus 25.6 mm Hg) for the DSCI group. Complete success rate, defined as IOP lower than 21 mm Hg without medication, was 34.6% (18/52 patients) at 48 months for the DS group, and 63.4% (33/52 patients) for the DSCI group. Qualified success rate; patients who achieved IOP below 21 mm Hg with or without medication, was 78.8% (41/52 patients) at 48 months and 94% (49/52 patients) for the DSCI group. The mean number of medications was reduced from 2.1 (SD 0.8) to 1.0 (SD 1) after DS, and was reduced from 2.2 (SD 0.7) to 0.4 (SD 0.6) in the DSCI group (p = 0.001) CONCLUSION: The use of a collagen implant in DS enhances the success rates and lowers the need for postoperative medication.  (+info)

(7/38) A randomised, prospective study comparing trabeculectomy with viscocanalostomy with adjunctive antimetabolite usage for the management of open angle glaucoma uncontrolled by medical therapy.

AIMS: To compare trabeculectomy with viscocanalostomy augmented with adjunctive antimetabolite use for the control of intraocular pressure (IOP) in open angle glaucoma (OAG). METHODS: 45 patients (50 eyes) with uncontrolled OAG were randomised to either trabeculectomy (25 eyes) or a viscocanalostomy technique (25 eyes). Preoperatively, all eyes were graded in terms of risk factors for drainage failure and were given intraoperative antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil 25 mg/ml (5-FU), mitomycin C (MMC) 0.2 mg/ml and 0.4 mg/ml) according to a standard protocol. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups in age, sex, type of OAG, preoperative medications, risk factors for drainage failure, and preoperative IOP. Mean follow up was 20 months (range 3-24 months). It was 12 months or longer in all eyes, except two lost to follow up at 3 months. At 12 months, complete success (IOP<21 mm Hg without antiglaucoma medications) was seen in 91% of eyes undergoing trabeculectomy, but in only 60% of eyes undergoing viscocanalostomy (p<0.02). Similarly, at the last follow up visit (mean 20 months) complete success was seen in 68% of eyes undergoing trabeculectomy and 34% with viscocanalostomy (p<0.05). In terms of qualified success (IOP<21 mm Hg with or without glaucoma medications) and mean IOP measurements postoperatively there were no difference between the groups, although the mean number of antiglaucomatous medications required postoperatively was less with trabeculectomy (0.39) than viscocanalostomy (1.04) (p<0.05). Needling procedures were more commonly required after trabeculectomy (p<0.02). YAG goniotomy was required in three eyes (13%) after viscocanalostomy. Early transient complications such as anterior chamber shallowing and encysted blebs were more common in the trabeculectomy group (p<0.05). Late postoperative cataract formation was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In terms of complete success and number of antiglaucomatous medications required postoperatively, IOP control appears to be better with trabeculectomy. Viscocanalostomy is associated with fewer early transient postoperative complications.  (+info)

(8/38) Efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma: a meta-analysis.

BACKGROUND: Non-penetrating trabecular surgery is a new filtrating surgery without opening in ternal trabecular structures. This study was to estimate the overall efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma. METHODS: The published articles selected for this study were obtained by a computerised Medline and China Biological Medicine Disk search of the literature and a manual search of the bibliographies of relevant articles. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed systematically, and the reported data were aggregated using the statistical techniques of meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 37 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled complete success rates of non-penetrating trabecular surgery with different techniques were: deep sclerectomy single, 69.7% (95% CI: 58.5% - 81.0%); deep sclerectomy with collagen implant, 59.4% (95% CI: 47.0% - 71.8%); deep sclerectomy with reticulated hyaluronic acid implant, 71.1% (95% CI: 56.8% - 85.3%); and viscocanalostomy, 72.0% (95% CI: 57.6% - 86.4%). The overall weighted complete success rate of non-penetrating trabecular surgery was 67.8% (95% CI: 61.4% - 74.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Non-penetrating trabecular surgery is the best available therapy method for medically uncontrolled open angle glaucoma with a complete success rate of over 60%. But the different techniques cannot belie the complete success rate of non-penetrating trabecular surgery.  (+info)