Outcomes research: collaboration among academic researchers, managed care organizations, and pharmaceutical manufacturers.
Medical and pharmaceutical outcomes research has been of increasing interest in the past 10 to 15 years among healthcare providers, payers, and regulatory agencies. Outcomes research has become a multidisciplinary field involving clinicians, health services researchers, epidemiologists, psychometricians, statisticians, psychologists, sociologists, economists, and ethicists. Collaboration among researchers in different organizations that offer different types of services and various research expertise is the essential element for any successful outcomes project. In this article we discuss collaboration on outcomes research among academic researchers (mainly those who work in colleges of pharmacy), managed care organizations, and research-based pharmaceutical manufacturers, with a focus on the opportunities and challenges facing each party. The pharmaceutical industry needs information to make product and promotion decisions; the managed care industry has data to offer but needs analysis of these data; and pharmacy schools, among other academic institutions, have skilled researchers and data-processing capacity but require projects for revenue, research training, experience, and publications. Challenges do exist with such endeavors, but collaboration could be beneficial in satisfying the needs of the individual parties. (+info)
Delivering health information statewide via the Internet in a collaborative environment: impact on individual member institutions.
The Arizona Health Information Network (AZHIN) is a statewide member-driven organization committed to improving access to information for health sciences students and practitioners. Members include several hospitals and hospital systems, an academic health sciences center, and other diverse health care organizations. AZHIN offers its members unlimited Web access to ten well-known health sciences databases. This paper explores the impact that AZHIN has had on its member institutions. A survey asked members to reflect on AZHIN and its possible effects on the visibility of the librarian within the institution, relative dollars spent on AZHIN and range of resources available, Internet connectivity within their institution, access to AZHIN and other Internet resources, teaching, and benefits of collaboration. Results indicated that AZHIN members have access to a wider range of resources than they would otherwise. There are financial savings for some. Internet connectivity and AZHIN membership can provide the librarian with a broadened role and increased visibility. The availability of MEDLINE and other AZHIN resources encouraged some institutions to install Internet connectivity more quickly. Teaching library users has increased. Overall, AZHIN members recognized many benefits of their collaboration. (+info)
Pharmaceutical terms reflecting the change in practice in Japan.
The implementation of Iyaku Bungyo, the changed regulations for drug distribution and the proposed change of pharmacy education from a four-year program to a six-year program are rapidly changing the practice of pharmacy. However, pharmacists' activities still remain at the level of simple dispensing and selling of drugs. Also, the terms that describe the essence of pharmacists' activities, such as services in patient care areas are still unclear. In order to solve and improve the problem of terminology for pharmacists' activities the use of terms related to pharmacists' services were examined in historical context. It was found that the terms "Rinsho yakugaku" and "Iryo yakugaku" have been used as having a similar meaning. Further, the term "Iryo yakugaku" was used to denote the comprehensive scope of pharmacists' services including "Rinsho yakugaku". It was verified that "Rinsho yakugaku" is a valid translation for "clinical pharmacy". "Iryo yakugaku" has a more comprehensive translation than "pharmaceutical care", therefore, it appears that "Iryo yakugaku" is a suitable translation for "pharmaceutical services". Hence, we proposed "Iryo yakugaku" as the English translation for "pharmaceutical services" and "Chiryo yakugaku" as the Japanese translation for "pharmaceutical care". There is a need, however for further clarification and definition of pharmacists' activities. (+info)
Survey of the levels of satisfaction with pharmacy practice among third-year students in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido--influence of experience in voluntary training at a community pharmacy and plans after graduation.
Pharmacy practice, which is executed in the taught of pharmaceutical sciences in Japan, has been assessed and improved student questionnaires. The levels of student satisfaction with the practice are expected to be influenced by their plans after graduation and their experience of training in pharmacies. However, there are few reports analyzing the information in the questionnaires from these viewpoints. In this report, we surveyed the levels of satisfaction of 148 third-year students in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Health Sciences University of Hokkaido using questionnaires and analyzed the influence of the students' background on the levels of satisfaction with pharmacy practice. Almost half of the students had received voluntary training in hospital and/or community pharmacies. Concerning plans after graduation, 36.5%, 27.7%, and 21.6% wanted to become community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and graduate students, respectively. More than 70% of the students were well satisfied with all the programs of practice. The levels of satisfaction with the overall practice and prescription analysis were significantly higher among students who had experienced training in pharmacies than among those who had not. Students who planned to become hospital pharmacists were more satisfied with manners seminars, one-dose package practice, and practice in a simulated pharmacy than the students who planned to enter the other field. Such surveys are useful for finding points for improvement and the development of new curricula when the assessment of pharmacy practice takes student background into consideration. (+info)
Programmatic curricular outcomes assessment at colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico.
OBJECTIVES: To categorize the manner in which programmatic curricular outcomes assessment is accomplished, identify the types of assessment methodologies used, and identify the persons or groups responsible for assessment. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 89 institutions throughout the United States and Puerto Rico. RESULTS: Sixty-eight of 89 surveys (76%) were returned. Forty-one respondents (60%) had a written and approved plan for programmatic curricular outcomes assessment, 18% assessed the entire curriculum, and 57% had partial activities in place. Various standardized and institution-specific assessment instruments were employed. Institutions differed as to whether an individual or a committee had overall responsibility for assessment. CONCLUSION: To move the assessment process forward, each college and school should identify a person or group to lead the effort. Additional validated assessment instruments might aid programmatic assessment. Future studies should identify the reasons for selecting certain assessment instruments and should attempt to identify the most useful ones. (+info)
Student perspectives on pharmacy curriculum and instruction in Egyptian schools.
OBJECTIVES: To determine student attitudes and opinions towards pharmacy education in Egyptian universities to provide information for designing delivery of a revised pharmacy curriculum. METHODS: Students were recruited from the pharmacy faculties at a government-sponsored university and a privately funded university. Data were gathered using a structured questionnaire and statistically analyzed. Responses from open questions were subjected to thematic analysis. RESULTS: Students spent widely differing amounts of time on non-classroom study, little of which was self-directed. This was reflected in the low frequency of use of library facilities and the preference of students for passively acquired information. Themes that emerged on how students would improve the curriculum were to increase the use of computers and the Internet; make the course more relevant to pharmacy practice and/or clinical pharmacy; improve and expand the practical components of the course; increase their own involvement in learning; and increase their understanding of subjects as well as their knowledge. For many of the questions, there was a significant different between the responses of students at the 2 universities. CONCLUSIONS: Students relied on classroom teaching and devoted little time to self-directed study. However, students were aware of international developments in pharmacy education and practice and are receptive to change. (+info)
Professional practice plans: recommendations from the 2005 Council of Faculties-Council of Deans Task Force.
OBJECTIVES: Determine the degree to which AACP member schools have established professional practice plans, characterize the nature of existing practice plans, and provide recommendations on the implementation of practice plans at AACP member schools. DESIGN: Survey of CEO Deans of AACP member institutions administered via online survey instrument. RESULTS: Sixty-five schools responded, with 29 (45%) indicating that they had an active practice plan in place. Fifty-two percent of those who do no have practice plans in place anticipate having plans established within three years. A variety of revenue sources are addressed by existing practice plans including sponsored research, patient care, educational activities and consulting. CONCLUSIONS: Academic pharmacy lacks sophistication in regards to developing comprehensive professional practice plans. Colleges of pharmacy should consider differentiating plans that address monies collected from sponsored research vs. professional services. AACP should continue to monitor this topic as increasing participation by member schools is expected. (+info)
An assessment system for mapping CAPE outcomes in an advanced pharmacy practice experience program.
OBJECTIVE: To implement and evaluate an assessment system based on the 1998 Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education's (CAPE) Outcomes for students in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). DESCRIPTION: The system requires each preceptor to create a summative assessment tool by choosing the most important 20-30 CAPE competencies and sub-elements necessary for his/her pharmacy practice with each to be scored by him/her on a 4-point scale from "exceeds expectations" to "below expectations." Students' grades are determined by an examination committee based on the preceptors' assessments. The system contains a mechanism to assist students with competency deficits and permits a student's yearlong performance in the APPE program to be considered when assigning grades for individual APPE courses. EVALUATION: The assessment system permits each student's performance in individual APPE courses to be mapped to the CAPE competencies for grading purposes. It permits class performance in an APPE program to be mapped to the CAPE competencies for quality assurance and school planning. CONCLUSION: An assessment system based on the 1998 CAPE Educational Outcomes competencies has been successfully introduced for students in APPE training. (+info)