(1/329) Analysis of macrophage scavenger receptor (SR-A) expression in human aortic atherosclerotic lesions.
The class A scavenger receptors (SR-As) are trimeric, integral membrane glycoproteins that exhibit unusually broad ligand-binding properties. A number of studies have suggested that these receptors may play an important role in host defense and in many macrophage-associated pathological processes, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. The study of the expression and function of these receptors in human disease has been hampered by the lack of suitable antibodies recognizing human SR-A. This has generated questions regarding the nature of receptors responsible for scavenger receptor activity detected in a variety of cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. To address these questions, we have produced high-titer antisera recognizing human SR-A by using mice deficient for SR-A (SR-A -/-). We show that SR-A -/- mice produce a significantly higher-titer immune response than do wild-type (SR-A +/+) littermates, with antisera of the former having a broad species reactivity and recognizing SR-A from humans, mice, and rabbits. The antisera recognize both type I and II SR-A in a wide range of immunological techniques. Using these antisera we show that the expression of SR-A protein is induced during monocyte to macrophage differentiation and that SR-A mediates 80% of the uptake of acetylated low density lipoprotein by human monocyte-derived macrophages. We also establish that human SR-A is expressed by tissue macrophages in liver and lung and by macrophage-derived foam cells within aortic atherosclerotic lesions, with little detectable expression by smooth muscle cells or aortic endothelium. (+info)
(2/329) Peptide model of a highly conserved, N-terminal domain of apolipoprotein E is able to modulate lipoprotein binding to a member of the class A scavenger receptor family.
Apolipoprotein E plays a critical role in plasma lipoprotein clearance. Peptide models of a highly conserved, N-terminal domain of this protein have been shown to increase the binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to fibroblast cell surfaces independently of the low density lipoprotein receptor. Here we provide data to show that these peptides not only increase the binding of LDL, but also of high density lipoprotein, though not acetylated LDL. We also have data suggesting that this novel activity is mediated, at least in part, by a member of the scavenger receptor family, SR-AI. Furthermore, we show that this activity is also prominent in macrophages, a cell relevant to atherogenesis. In addition, this current paper provides evidence suggesting that this complex binding activity is initiated by a peptide-receptor interaction, and that our peptides are able to induce activity at physiologically relevant concentrations. This study provides evidence for a possible novel receptor interaction and further anti-atherogenic properties of apolipoprotein E and raises the possibility of a therapeutic potential of our peptide models. (+info)
(3/329) Distinct scavenger receptor expression and function in the human CD14(+)/CD16(+) monocyte subset.
The CD14(+)/CD16(+) subset of human blood monocytes, which expresses low levels of the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 and high levels of the Fc receptor CD16 and exhibits features of mature tissue macrophages, is expanded in certain inflammatory conditions and may be relevant in atherosclerosis. Scavenger receptors (ScR) are important for lipid accumulation into macrophage-derived foam cells in atherogenesis and for the clearance of pathogens. Hence, we compared the function and expression of ScR in CD33(low) CD16(+) and CD33(high) CD14(++) monocyte subsets. Double immunofluorescence analysis of isolated monocytes revealed that the CD33(low) subset showed lower specific, ScR-mediated binding of DiI-labeled modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL) than CD33(high) cells. Differences in modified LDL binding between subsets were accompanied by changes in mRNA expression. RT-PCR in sorted cells indicated lower ScR class A type I/II (ScR-AI/II) mRNA levels in CD14(+)/CD16(+) than in CD14(++) cells, whereas CD36 transcripts were unaltered. This was paralleled by findings in mostly CD16(+) monocyte-derived macrophages showing a marked reduction in ScR-mediated binding of acetylated LDL, but not in the binding of oxidized LDL, and lower expression of ScR-AI/II mRNA, but not CD36 transcripts, after exposure to tumor necrosis factor-alpha for 48 h in vitro. Thus the subset of CD14(+)/CD16(+) monocytes shows distinct ScR function and expression, possibly reflecting a preactivation by cytokines with a predilection for specific inflammatory or vascular conditions, e.g., atherogenesis. (+info)
(4/329) De novo expression of the class-A macrophage scavenger receptor conferring resistance to apoptosis in differentiated human THP-1 monocytic cells.
The class-A macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR) is a trimeric multifunctional protein expressed selectively in differentiated monomyeloid phagocytes which mediates uptake of chemically modified lipoproteins and bacterial products. This study investigated whether MSR plays a role in the regulation of apoptosis, a model of genetically programmed cell death. De novo expression of MSR occurred in human THP-1 monocytic cells differentiated with phorbol esters, which activated a nuclear transcription factor binding to the Ap1/ets-like domain of the MSR promoter. The phorbol ester-stimulated THP-1 cells also expressed increased levels of the pro-apoptotic gene products, caspase-3 and Fas ligand, but the cells exhibited no change in apoptosis. Global activation of GTP-binding proteins with fluoride anions triggered apoptosis of THP-1 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, demonstrated by nuclear shrinkage and fragmentation and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. However, the MSR-expressing THP-1 macrophage-like cells showed a significant reduction in apoptosis compared to undifferentiated control THP-1 cells, which produce MSR at undetectable levels. Fluoride stimulation also triggered apoptosis of human Jurkat T cells. Stimulation with phorbol ester made no difference in apoptosis between treated and untreated Jurkat cells. Finally, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing the class-A MSR type I by cDNA transfection showed markedly increased resistance to G-protein-coupled apoptosis. Thus, de novo expression of MSR associated with monocyte maturation into macrophages appears to confer the resistance of macrophages to apoptotic stimulation by G-protein activation. (+info)
(5/329) Roles of a macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) in host defense and heterogeneity of splenic marginal zone macrophages.
Class A type I and type II macrophage scavenger receptors (MSR-A) and a macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) are trimeric membrane glycoproteins mediating the uptake of chemically modified low density lipoproteins. MSR-A is expressed constitutively in several tissue macrophages and in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, whereas MARCO is expressed constitutively in splenic marginal zone macrophages and in macrophages and endothelial cells in the lymphatic medullary sinuses of lymph nodes. The administration of LPS, zymosan, BCG, or L. monocytogenes to mice resulted in marked and transient MARCO expression and in the upregulation of MSR-A expression in the liver and spleen. In osteopetrotic (op) mutant mice defective in the production on M-CSF, ER-TR9-positive marginal zone macrophages and MOMA-1-positive marginal metallophilic macrophages were absent, whereas MARCO-expressing marginal zone macrophages were present, indicating the heterogeneity of marginal zone macrophages. Intravenous administration of BCG resulted in marked accumulation of BCG bacilli in the both marginal zone macrophages and marginal metallophilic macrophages in littermate control mice. In contrast, BCG bacilli were incorporated almost exclusively by MARCO-expressing marginal zone macrophages in op/op mice. These results indicate that MARCO is not only expressed constitutively in specific macrophage subpopulations but is also induced by various bacterial antigens and plays a role in host defense against bacteria. (+info)
(6/329) Modification of type III VLDL, their remnants, and VLDL from ApoE-knockout mice by p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a product of myeloperoxidase activity, causes marked cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophages.
Very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) from apolipoprotein (apo) E2/E2 subjects with type III hyperlipoproteinemia, VLDL remnants, and VLDL from apoE-knockout (EKO) mice are taken up poorly by macrophages. The present study examined whether VLDL modification by the reactive aldehyde p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (pHA) enhances cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation by J774A.1 macrophages. pHA is the major product derived from the oxidation of L-tyrosine by myeloperoxidase and is a component of human atherosclerotic lesions. Incubation of J774A.1 cells with native type III VLDL, their remnants, and EKO-VLDL increased cellular CE by only 3-, 5-, and 5-fold, respectively, compared with controls. In striking contrast, cells exposed to VLDL modified by purified pHA (pHA-VLDL) exhibited marked increases in cellular CE of 38-, 47-, and 35-fold, respectively (P=0.0001). Addition of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin decreased cellular CE accumulation induced by the 3 pHA-modified VLDL preparations by 73%, 59%, and 73%, respectively. Addition of the acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor DuP 128 to cells incubated with the pHA-modified lipoproteins decreased cellular CE by 100%, 82%, and 95%, respectively, but had no effect on cellular triglycerides. To examine whether the type A scavenger receptors (SR-As) mediated the uptake of pHA-VLDL, incubations were performed in the presence of polyinosine (poly I), a polynucleotide known to block binding to SR-As (types I and II), or in cells preincubated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), a cytokine known to decrease expression of SR-A type I. Coincubation of pHA-VLDL with poly I reduced cellular CE by only 38%, 44%, and 49%, respectively, whereas coincubation with IFN-gamma reduced CE by only 18%, 27%, and 65%, respectively. In marked contrast to pHA-VLDL, both poly I and IFN-gamma inhibited, by>95%, CE accumulation induced by copper-oxidized VLDL. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the conversion of type III VLDLs, their remnants, and EKO-VLDL into atherogenic particles and suggest that macrophage uptake of pHA-VLDL (1) requires catalytically active lipoprotein lipase, (2) involves acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-mediated cholesterol esterification, and (3) involves pathways distinct from the SR-A. (+info)
(7/329) Lovastatin decreases the receptor-mediated degradation of acetylated and oxidized LDLs in human blood monocytes during the early stage of differentiation into macrophages.
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors are used therapeutically to upregulate the LDL receptor-mediated removal of plasma cholesterol by the liver. Several lines of evidence indicate that these drugs also exert direct effects on the metabolism of native and modified LDL in extrahepatic cells. We studied the effects of lovastatin (LOV) on the degradation of native, acetylated, and oxidized LDL, and on levels of mRNA encoding for the LDL, types I and II class A macrophage scavenger, and CD36 receptors in human blood monocytes at different stages of their maturation into adherent macrophages. LOV (10 micromol/L) reduced the degradation of acetylated LDL when added to freshly isolated cells cultured for 2 (81+/-4% of control, P<0.05) and 5 (76+/-6%, of control, P<0.05) days. The degradation of oxidized LDL was also reduced in cells treated with LOV for 2 days after seeding (51+/-3% of control, P<0. 001) but not in 5-day-old cells. LOV had no significant effect on the degradation of either acetylated or oxidized LDL when added to fully matured macrophages allowed to differentiate under control conditions for 7 days before incubations with 10 micromol/L LOV for an additional 2 days. In contrast, LOV increased the degradation of native LDL in these cells at all 3 stages of cell differentiation. LOV also reduced class A types I and II macrophage scavenger receptor and CD36 mRNA levels in 2- and 5-day-old cells but not in the more mature macrophages. These data suggest that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A inhibitors may reduce the expression and function of the class A types I and II macrophage scavenger receptor and CD36 in monocytes, during the early stages of their differentiation into adherent macrophages. These effects, if operative in vivo, may slow down the development of the atherosclerotic plaque and thus contribute to the beneficial effects of these drugs. (+info)
(8/329) Scavenger receptor activity is increased in macrophages from rabbits with low atherosclerotic response: studies in normocholesterolemic high and low atherosclerotic response rabbits.
We have previously described 2 strains of New Zealand White rabbits with a high (HAR) or low (LAR) atherosclerotic response to hypercholesterolemia. In the present study, we focused on class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) activity and ApoE expression in macrophages from both rabbit strains. These parameters play a crucial role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the arterial wall and may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. SR activity, as measured by uptake of DiI-labeled acetylated LDL, was significantly higher in macrophages from LAR rabbits (2177+/-253 ng/mg cell protein) than in macrophages from HAR rabbits (1153+/-200 ng/mg cell protein). The higher SR activity was caused by a greater number of SRs (apparent Vmax, 4100 ng/mg in LAR and 1980 ng/mg in HAR rabbits). The high SR activity in macrophages from LAR rabbits was associated with a significantly higher expression of SR-A mRNA compared with macrophages from HAR rabbits. However, the latter finding could not be explained by differences in the activity of transcription factor-activating protein 1 (AP-1), which was comparable in macrophages from both strains of rabbits. Because under certain circumstances SR-A mRNA expression is regulated in parallel with ApoE expression, we also evaluated this parameter. Although ApoE mRNA was 74% higher in macrophages from LAR rabbits, the difference did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, the increased expression of SR-A in macrophages in the presence of adequate amounts of ApoE may play a role in attenuating atherosclerosis in LAR rabbits. (+info)