Large bursa formation associated with osteochondroma of the scapula: a case report and review of the literature.
Bursitis or large bursa formation associated with osteochondroma has rarely been reported. A 33-year-old male presented with upper back pain, a rapidly developing mass beside the lateral border of his right scapula and snapping elicited by movement of the scapula. Plain radiograms and CT revealed osteochondroma on the ventral surface of the scapula without any unmineralized component and a huge cystic lesion around the osteochondroma. Aspiration of the cystic lesion showed the presence of sero-sanguineous fluid. MRI following the aspiration showed a thin cartilaginous cap with distinct outer margin and no soft tissue mass around the cap. Pathological examinations confirmed the diagnosis of osteochondroma with the large bursa formation. Clinical examination 19 months postoperatively showed an uneventful clinical course. (+info)
Parosteal osteosarcoma of the scapula.
Parosteal osteosarcoma is a low-grade osteosarcoma, which occurs on the surface of the bone. We had experienced a parosteal osteosarcoma involving the flat bone, the scapula of a 21-year-old man. This is an extremely rare location for a parosteal osteosarcoma. Plain radiograph showed broad-based, well-defined radiodense lesion at the scapula. Computed tomogram demonstrated an intact cortex and absence of a medullary involvement. Tumor showed a lobulated, high-density lesion, indicating bone formation. Histologically, parosteal osteosarcoma is a well-differentiated osteosarcoma. The tumor is composed of a hypocellular proliferation of spindle cells, with minimal cytologic atypia. The bone is in the form of a well-formed bony trabeculae. Occasional cartilage is present in the form of a cap. (+info)
The morphometry of the coracoid process - its aetiologic role in subcoracoid impingement syndrome.
Anatomical morphometric studies of the coracoid process and coraco-glenoid space were carried out on 204 dry scapulae. No statistically significant correlations were found between length, or thickness of the coracoid process, prominence of the coracoid tip, coracoid slope, coraco-glenoid distance, or position of the coracoid tip with respect to the uppermost point of the glenoid. These anatomical characteristics were independent of the dimensions of the scapulae. Three configurations of the coraco-glenoid space were identified. Type I configuration was found in 45% of scapulae and Type II and Type III, in 34% and 21% of specimens, respectively. The lowest value of the coraco-glenoid distance were seen in Type I scapulae. Morphometric characteristics which might predispose to subcoracoid impingement were found in 4% of Type I scapulae. A total of 27 scapulae, nine with each type of configuration were submitted to CT scanning. Scapulae with a Type I configuration were found to have low values for the coraco-glenoid angle and coracoid overlap, which are known to be associated with a short coraco-humeral distance. Subjects with a Type I configuration, and severe narrowing of the coraco-glenoid space, appear to be predisposed to coraco-humeral impingement. These morphometric characteristics may be easily evaluated on CT scans. (+info)
Fractures due to hypocalcemic convulsion.
We report on two cases of patients in whom hypocalcemic seizures during hemodialysis led to right scapular body fracture in one and bilateral femoral neck fractures in the other. (+info)
Suprascapular neuropathy in volleyball players.
BACKGROUND: Suprascapular nerve entrapment with isolated paralysis of the infraspinatus muscle is uncommon. However, this pathology has been reported in volleyball players. Despite a lack of scientific evidence, excessive strain on the nerve is often cited as a possible cause of this syndrome. Previous research has shown a close association between shoulder range of motion and strain on the suprascapular nerve. No clinical studies have so far been designed to examine the association between excessive shoulder mobility and the presence of this pathology. AIM: To study the possible association between the range of motion of the shoulder joint and the presence of suprascapular neuropathy by clinically examining the Belgian male volleyball team with respect to several parameters. METHODS: An electromyographic investigation, a clinical shoulder examination, shoulder range of motion measurements, and an isokinetic concentric peak torque shoulder internal/external rotation strength test were performed in 16 professional players. RESULTS: The electrodiagnostic study showed a severe suprascapular neuropathy in four players which affected only the infraspinatus muscle. In each of these four players, suprascapular nerve entrapment was present on the dominant side. Except for the hypotrophy of the infraspinatus muscle, no significant differences between the affected and non-affected players were observed on clinical examination. Significant differences between the affected and non-affected players were found for range of motion measurements of external rotation, horizontal flexion and forward flexion, and for flexion of the shoulder girdle (protraction); all were found to be higher in the affected players than the non-affected players. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests an association between increased range of motion of the shoulder joint and the presence of isolated paralysis of the infraspinatus muscle in volleyball players. However, the small number of patients in this study prevents definite conclusions from being drawn. (+info)
The painful shoulder: part II. Acute and chronic disorders.
Fractures of the humerus, scapula and clavicle usually result from a direct blow or a fall onto an outstretched hand. Most can be treated by immobilization. Dislocation of the humerus, strain or sprain of the acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints, and rotator cuff injury often can be managed conservatively. Recurrence is a problem with humerus dislocation, and surgical management may be indicated if conservative treatment fails. Rotator cuff tears are often hard to diagnose because of muscle atrophy that impairs the patient's ability to perform diagnostic maneuvers. Chronic shoulder problems usually fall into one of several categories, which include impingement syndrome, frozen shoulder and biceps tendonitis. Other causes of chronic shoulder pain are labral injury, osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral or acromioclavicular joint and, rarely, osteolysis of the distal clavicle. (+info)
Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve.
Operative release for entrapment of the suprascapular nerve was carried out in 35 patients. They were assessed at an average of 30 months (12 to 98) after operation using the functional shoulder score devised by Constant and Murley. The average age at the time of surgery was 40 years (17 to 67). Entrapment was due to injury in ten patients and no cause was found in three; 34 had diffuse posterolateral shoulder pain. The strength of abduction was reduced in all the patients. The average Constant score, unadjusted for age or gender, before operative release was 47% (28 to 53). In 25 of the patients both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were atrophied and seven had isolated atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle. The average conduction time from Erb's point to the supraspinatus muscle and to the infraspinatus muscle was 5.7 ms (2.8 to 12.8) and 7.4 ms (3.4 to 13.4), respectively. In two patients MRI revealed a ganglion in the infraspinatus fossa and, in another, a complete rupture of the rotator cuff. The average time from the onset of symptoms to operation was ten months (3 to 36). A posterior approach was advocated. The average Constant score, after operative release, unadjusted for age or gender was 77% (35 to 91). The overall result was excellent in ten of the patients, very good in seven, good in 14, fair in two, and poor in two. The symptomatic and functional outcome in our series confirmed the usefulness and safety of operative decompression for entrapment of the suprascapular nerve. (+info)
Dual origin and segmental organisation of the avian scapula.
Bones of the postcranial skeleton of higher vertebrates originate from either somitic mesoderm or somatopleural layer of the lateral plate mesoderm. Controversy surrounds the origin of the scapula, a major component of the shoulder girdle, with both somitic and lateral plate origins being proposed. Abnormal scapular development has been described in the naturally occurring undulated series of mouse mutants, which has implicated Pax1 in the formation of this bone. Here we addressed the development of the scapula, firstly, by analysing the relationship between Pax1 expression and chondrogenesis and, secondly, by determining the developmental origin of the scapula using chick quail chimeric analysis. We show the following. (1) The scapula develops in a rostral-to-caudal direction and overt chondrification is preceded by an accumulation of Pax1-expressing cells. (2) The scapular head and neck are of lateral plate mesodermal origin. (3) In contrast, the scapular blade is composed of somitic cells. (4) Unlike the Pax1-positive cells of the vertebral column, which are of sclerotomal origin, the Pax1-positive cells of the scapular blade originate from the dermomyotome. (5) Finally, we show that cells of the scapular blade are organised into spatially restricted domains along its rostrocaudal axis in the same order as the somites from which they originated. Our results imply that the scapular blade is an ossifying muscular insertion rather than an original skeletal element, and that the scapular head and neck are homologous to the 'true coracoid' of higher vertebrates. (+info)