(1/526) Tristetraprolin and LPS-inducible CXC chemokine are rapidly induced in presumptive satellite cells in response to skeletal muscle injury.

Myogenic precursor cells known as satellite cells persist in adult skeletal muscle and are responsible for its ability to regenerate after injury. Quiescent satellite cells are activated by signals emanating from damaged muscle. Here we describe the rapid activation of two genes in response to muscle injury; these transcripts encode LPS-inducible CXC chemokine (LIX), a neutrophil chemoattractant, and Tristetraprolin (TTP), an RNA-binding protein implicated in the regulation of cytokine expression. Using a synchronized cell culture model we show that C2C12 myoblasts arrested in G0 exhibit some molecular attributes of satellite cells in vivo: suppression of MyoD and Myf5 expression during G0 and their reactivation in G1. Synchronization also revealed cell cycle dependent expression of CD34, M-cadherin, HGF and PEA3, genes implicated in satellite cell biology. To identify other genes induced in synchronized C2C12 myoblasts we used differential display PCR and isolated LIX and TTP cDNAs. Both LIX and TTP mRNAs are short-lived, encode molecules implicated in inflammation and are transiently induced during growth activation in vitro. Further, LIX and TTP are rapidly induced in response to muscle damage in vivo. TTP expression precedes that of MyoD and is detected 30 minutes after injury. The spatial distribution of LIX and TTP transcripts in injured muscle suggests expression by satellite cells. Our studies suggest that in addition to generating new cells for repair, activated satellite cells may be a source of signaling molecules involved in tissue remodeling during regeneration.  (+info)

(2/526) Myogenic specification of side population cells in skeletal muscle.

Skeletal muscle contains myogenic progenitors called satellite cells and muscle-derived stem cells that have been suggested to be pluripotent. We further investigated the differentiation potential of muscle-derived stem cells and satellite cells to elucidate relationships between these two populations of cells. FACS(R) analysis of muscle side population (SP) cells, a fraction of muscle-derived stem cells, revealed expression of hematopoietic stem cell marker Sca-1 but did not reveal expression of any satellite cell markers. Muscle SP cells were greatly enriched for cells competent to form hematopoietic colonies. Moreover, muscle SP cells with hematopoietic potential were CD45 positive. However, muscle SP cells did not differentiate into myocytes in vitro. By contrast, satellite cells gave rise to myocytes but did not express Sca-1 or CD45 and never formed hematopoietic colonies. Importantly, muscle SP cells exhibited the potential to give rise to both myocytes and satellite cells after intramuscular transplantation. In addition, muscle SP cells underwent myogenic specification after co-culture with myoblasts. Co-culture with myoblasts or forced expression of MyoD also induced muscle differentiation of muscle SP cells prepared from mice lacking Pax7 gene, an essential gene for satellite cell development. Therefore, these data document that satellite cells and muscle-derived stem cells represent distinct populations and demonstrate that muscle-derived stem cells have the potential to give rise to myogenic cells via a myocyte-mediated inductive interaction.  (+info)

(3/526) Targeted expression of IGF-1 transgene to skeletal muscle accelerates muscle and motor neuron regeneration.

Currently, there is no known medical treatment that hastens the repair of damaged nerve and muscle. Using IGF-1 transgenic mice that specifically express human recombinant IGF-1 in skeletal muscle, we test the hypotheses that targeted gene expression of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle enhances motor nerve regeneration after a nerve crush injury. The IGF-1 transgene affects the initiation of the muscle repair process after nerve injury as shown by increased activation of SCA-1positive myogenic stem cells. Increased satellite cell differentiation and proliferation are observed in IGF-1 transgenic mice, shown by increased expression of Cyclin D1, MyoD, and myogenin. Expression of myogenin and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits, initially increased in both wild-type and IGF-1 transgenic mice, are restored to normal levels at a faster rate in IGF-1 transgenic mice, which indicates a rescue of nerve-evoked muscle activity. Expression of the IGF-1 transgene in skeletal muscle results in accelerated recovery of saltatory nerve conduction, increased innervation as detected by neurofilament expression, and faster recovery of muscle mass. These studies demonstrate that local expression of IGF-1 augments the repair of injured nerve and muscle.  (+info)

(4/526) Biological progression from adult bone marrow to mononucleate muscle stem cell to multinucleate muscle fiber in response to injury.

Adult bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) are shown to contribute to muscle tissue in a step-wise biological progression. Following irradiation-induced damage, transplanted GFP-labeled BMDC become satellite cells: membrane-ensheathed mononucleate muscle stem cells. Following a subsequent exercise-induced damage, GFP-labeled multinucleate myofibers are detected. Isolated GFP-labeled satellite cells are heritably myogenic. They express three characteristic muscle markers, are karyotypically diploid, and form clones that can fuse into multinucleate cells in culture or into myofibers after injection into mouse muscles. These results suggest that two temporally distinct injury-related signals first induce BMDC to occupy the muscle stem cell niche and then to help regenerate mature muscle fibers. The stress-induced progression of BMDC to muscle satellite cell to muscle fiber results in a contribution to as many as 3.5% of muscle fibers and is due to developmental plasticity in response to environmental cues.  (+info)

(5/526) Affects of different access routes on autologous satellite cell implantation stimulating myocardial regeneration.

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of different access routes on autologous satellite cell implantation to stimulate myocardial regeneration. METHODS: Satellite cells were procured from skeletal muscle (gluteus max) of adult mongrel canine, cultured, proliferated and labeled with 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindone (DAPI) in vitro. The cells were autologously implanted into the site of acute myocardial infarction by local injection or perfusion through the ligated distal left anterior descending coronary artery. Specimens were harvested 2, 4 and 8 weeks later for histological study. RESULTS: The labeling efficiency of satellite cells with DAPI was close to 100%. Fluorescent cells were found at the infarcted zone, papillary muscle and local injection site. Some of these cells had progressively differentiated into striated muscle fibers connected to intercalated discs. The infant cells appeared different from the mature myocardium under an electron microscope. Satellite cells implanted by perfusion through the coronary artery were arranged in order of consistency with host myocardial fibers. The satellite cells, implanted by local injection, were found growing in a disordered way. CONCLUSION: Satellite cells, implanted by coronary artery perfusion, can progressively differentiate into striated muscle fibers, arranging in order and disseminating over the infarcted zone. This approach seems more favorable for the recovery of myocardial contractile function than that of local injection.  (+info)

(6/526) Reactive oxygen species are important mediators of taurine release from skeletal muscle cells.

The present study illustrates elements of the signal cascades involved in the activation of taurine efflux pathways in myotubes derived from skeletal muscle cells. Exposing primary skeletal muscle cells, loaded with (14)C-taurine, to 1) hypotonic media, 2) the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activator melittin, 3) anoxia, or 4) lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) causes an increase in (14)C-taurine release and a concomitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidants butulated hydroxy toluene and vitamin E inhibit the taurine efflux after cell swelling, anoxia, and addition of LPC. The muscle cells possess two separate taurine efflux pathways, i.e., a swelling- and melittin-induced pathway that requires 5-lipoxygenase activity for activation and a LPC-induced pathway. The two pathways are distinguished by their opposing sensitivity toward the anion channel blocker DIDS and cholesterol. These data provide evidence for PLA(2) products and ROS as key mediators of the signal cascade leading to taurine efflux in muscle.  (+info)

(7/526) Activated satellite cells are present in uninjured extraocular muscles of mature mice.

PURPOSE: We recently demonstrated that there is a continuous process of myonuclear addition into normal, uninjured adult myofibers in rabbit extraocular muscles (EOM). This phenomenon is not seen in skeletal muscles from normal, adult limbs. These features may explain the selective involvement of the EOM in progressive external ophthalmoplegia and oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy due to an accumulation of damaged DNA in mitochondria and nuclei within the EOM as a result of repeated cycling of the muscle satellite cells. Many testable hypotheses flow from these observations. We investigated whether continuous myonuclear addition is present in normal mouse EOM so that mouse models of genetic disorders can be used to study the pathogenic mechanisms and to test potential therapies for human muscle disorders. METHODS: Bromodeoxyuridine (brdU) was injected intraperitoneally into C57 adult mice every 2 hours for 12 hours. Twenty-four hours later the animals were sacrificed, and the globes with the muscles attached were prepared for immunohistochemical localization of brdU-positive nuclei within the EOM. All cross sections were immunostained for both brdU and either dystrophin or laminin. RESULTS: All the rectus muscles from the mouse EOM examined contained both satellite cells and myonuclei that were positive for brdU. This demonstrates the division of satellite cells and the fusion of their daughter cells with existing adult EOM myofibers in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the process of continuous myonuclear addition is also active in mouse EOM. These findings will allow various mutant mouse models to be used to study the pathogenesis and treatment of various muscle disorders. The existence of continuous myonuclear addition in adult, uninjured EOM fundamentally changes the accepted notion that EOM myofibers are postmitotic.  (+info)

(8/526) Myogenic cell cycle duration in Harpagifer species with sub-Antarctic and Antarctic distributions: evidence for cold compensation.

In teleosts, the proliferation of myogenic progenitor cells is required for muscle growth and nuclear turnover. We measured the cell cycle and S-phase duration of myogenic cells in the fast myotomal muscle of two closely related Harpagifer species by cumulative S-phase labelling with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Harpagifer antarcticus is a stenothermal species from the Antarctic peninsula (experiencing temperatures of -2 degrees C to +1 degrees C) and Harpagifer bispinis is a eurythermal species from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego (living at +4 degrees C in winter and up to 11 degrees C in summer). Specific growth rates in the adult stages studied were not significantly different from zero. Myogenic progenitor cells were identified using an antibody against c-met. Seventy-five percent of the c-met(+ve) cells were in a proliferative state in both species. Cell cycle time was 150 h at 5 degrees C and 81.3 h at 10 degrees C in H. bispinis (Q(10)=3.4). Cell cycle duration was 35% shorter in H. antarcticus at 0 degrees C (111 h) than in H. bispinis at 5 degrees C. The predicted cell cycle time for H. bispinis at 0 degrees C (based on the Q(10) relationship) was 277 h, which was more than double that measured for the Antarctic species at this temperature. The results obtained are compatible with an evolutionary adjustment of cell cycle time for function at low temperature in the Antarctic species.  (+info)