L-[1-11C]-tyrosine PET to evaluate response to hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer.
PET with L-[1-11C]-tyrosine (TYR) was investigated in patients undergoing hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) with recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF-alpha) and melphalan for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer of the lower limb. METHODS: Seventeen patients (5 women, 12 men; age range 24-75 y; mean age 52 y) were studied. TYR PET studies were performed before HILP and 2 and 8 wk afterwards. The protein synthesis rates (PSRs) in nanomoles per milliliter per minute were calculated. After final PET studies, tumors were resected and pathologically examined. Patients with pathologically complete responses (pCR) showed no viable tumors after treatment. Those with pathologically partial responses (pPR) showed various amounts of viable tumors in the resected tumor specimens. RESULTS: Six patients (35%) showed a pCR and 11 patients (65%) showed a pPR. All tumors were depicted as hot spots on PET studies before HILP. The PSR in the pCR group at 2 and 8 wk after perfusion had decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in comparison to the PSR before HILP. A significant difference was found in PSR between the pCR and pPR groups at 2 and at 8 wk (P < 0.05). Median PSR in nonviable tumor tissue was 0.62 and ranged from 0.22 to 0.91. With a threshold PSR of 0.91, sensitivity and specificity of TYR PET were 82% and 100%, respectively. The predictive value of a PSR > 0.91 for having viable tumor after HILP was 100%, whereas the predictive value of a PSR < or = 0.91 for having nonviable tumor tissue after HILP was 75%. The 2 patients in the pPR groups with a PSR < 0.91 showed microscopic islets of tumor cells surrounded by extensive necrosis on pathological examination. CONCLUSION: Based on the calculated PSR after HILP, TYR PET gave a good indication of the pathological outcome. Inflammatory tissue after treatment did not interfere with viable tumor on the images, suggesting that it may be worthwhile to pursue TYR PET in other therapy evaluation settings. (+info
Comparison of the Ki-67 score and S-phase fraction as prognostic variables in soft-tissue sarcoma.
Immunohistochemically determined Ki-67 scores and flow cytometrically determined S-phase fractions were successfully evaluated from the primary tumours of 123 patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. All patients had either limb or superficial trunk tumours. Ki-67 score correlated strongly with ploidy, S-phase fraction and grade. Ki-67 did not correlate with the size of the primary tumour. When analysed as a continuous variable, Ki-67 was a stronger predictor of both metastasis-free survival and disease-specific overall survival (P = 0.003 and 0.04 respectively) than was the S-phase fraction (P = 0.06 and 0.07 respectively). We tested the relevance of different cut-point values by dividing the whole material into two parts at every 10% (e.g. 10% of patients vs. the remaining 90%, 20% vs. 80%, etc.). We counted the relative risk and confidence interval at all these cut-off points. Ki-67 had good prognostic discriminating power irrespective of the cut-point value, but S-phase fraction lost its prognostic power at higher cut-point values. In conclusion, we found that Ki-67 is a useful prognostic tool in the treatment of soft-tissue sarcoma patients irrespective of the cut-point value. S-phase fraction can be used at lower cut-point values. (+info
Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma: biologic behavior, prognosis, and response to combined surgical resection and immunotherapy.
PURPOSE: Sarcomatoid variants of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are aggressive tumors that respond poorly to immunotherapy. We report the outcomes of 31 patients with sarcomatoid RCC treated with a combination of surgical resection and immunotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were identified from the database of the University of California Los Angeles Kidney Cancer Program. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 31 consecutive patients in whom sarcomatoid RCC was diagnosed between 1990 and 1997. Clinical stage, sites of metastasis, pathologic stage, and type of immunotherapy were abstracted from the medical records. The primary end point analyzed was overall survival, and a multivariate analysis was performed to distinguish any factors conferring an improved survivorship. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of patients were male and 74% were female, and the median age was 59 years (range, 34 to 73 years). Length of follow-up ranged from 2 to 77 months (mean, 21.4 months). Twenty-eight patients (84%) had known metastases at the time of radical nephrectomy (67% had lung metastases and 40% had bone, 21% had liver, 33% had lymphatic, and 15% had brain metastases). Twenty-five patients (81%) received immunotherapy, including low-dose interleukin (IL)-2-based therapy (five patients), tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte-based therapy plus IL-2 (nine patients), high-dose IL-2-based therapy (nine patients), dendritic cell vaccine-based therapy (one patient), and interferon alpha-based therapy alone (one patient). Two patients (6%) achieved complete responses (median duration, 46+ months) and five patients (15%) achieved partial responses (median duration, 36 months). One- and 2-year overall survival rates were 48% and 37%, respectively. Using a multivariate analysis, age, sex, and percentage of sarcomatoid tumor (< or >50%) did not significantly correlate with survival. Improved survival was found in patients receiving high-dose IL-2 therapy compared with patients treated with surgery alone or any other form of immunotherapy (P = .025). Adjusting for age, sex, and percentage of sarcomatoid tumor, the relative risk of death was 10.4 times higher in patients not receiving high-dose IL-2 therapy. Final pathologic T stage did not correlate significantly with outcome, but node-positive patients had a higher death rate per year of follow-up than did the rest of the population (1.26 v 0.76, Cox regression analysis). CONCLUSION: Surgical resection and high-dose IL-2-based immunotherapy may play a role in the treatment of sarcomatoid RCCs in select patients. (+info
Prognostic implications of various models for calculation of S-phase fraction in 259 patients with soft tissue sarcoma.
The S-phase fraction (SPF) in flow cytometric DNA histograms in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) can be calculated in various ways. The traditional planimetric method of Baisch has been shown to be prognostic, but is hampered by a failure rate of around 40%. We therefore tested other models to see if this rate could be decreased with retained prognostic value. In 259 STS of the locomotor system the SPF was calculated according to Baisch and with commercial parametric MultiCycle software using different corrections for background. Using the Baisch model, 159 histograms could be evaluated for SPF. The 5-year metastasis-free survival rate (MFSR) was 0.94 for the low-risk group (defined with SPF), and 0.53 for the high-risk group. In the low-risk group, four of the seven patients who developed metastasis did so after 5 years Using the MultiCycle software, SPF could be calculated in 253 tumours. Depending on type of background correction used, the 5-year MFSR varied between 0.67 and 0.82 for the low-risk group, and between 0.47 and 0.53 for the high-risk group. The late metastasis pattern in the low-risk group was never seen using the MultiCycle software. We conclude that in paraffin archival material, calculation of SPF according to Baisch is preferable in clinical use due to better separation between low-risk and high-risk groups, and also the possibility to identify patients who metastasize late. (+info
Histochemical investigation into the molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation in a benign glomus tumour.
A glomangiosarcoma arose in a benign glomus tumour. The histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumour were investigated. Apoptotic cells were identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL). The proportion of apoptotic cells was found to be low and TUNEL positive nuclei were present in the benign part of the tumour. Bcl-2 protein, an inhibitor of apoptosis, was strongly expressed in the glomangiosarcoma with only weak staining in the benign area. The proliferation index of the glomangiosarcoma was almost 10-fold higher than that of the benign glomus tumour. Numerous nuclei in the glomangiosarcoma were intensely stained for the tumour suppressor protein p53. The results of the this study may contribute to an understanding of the molecular basis of malignant transformation in benign glomus tumours. (+info
Clinical and radiological aspects of idiopathic diabetic muscle infarction. Rational approach to diagnosis and treatment.
The systemic effects of diabetes mellitus are well recognised. The heart, kidney, central and peripheral nervous systems, and the distal parts of the limbs are often the site of end-organ damage resulting from ischaemia. Infarction of large muscle groups in the limb, not associated with gangrene, is uncommon. There have been few reported cases other than radiological descriptions of diabetic muscle infarcts. While previous reports have illustrated some of the clinical and radiological characteristics of this condition, the paucity of published cases makes it difficult to determine the most appropriate methods of diagnosis and treatment. During a five-year period we treated 14 patients with diabetes mellitus, aged from 32 to 59 years, who were referred to a musculoskeletal oncology service for suspected soft-tissue sarcoma, but were subsequently found to have a diabetic muscle infarct. Closed needle biopsy was performed in 13 without complications. In 12 patients, the symptoms resolved without surgical treatment. (+info
GLI gene expression in bone and soft tissue sarcomas of adult patients correlates with tumor grade.
The GLI gene encodes a transcription factor harboring five zinc finger motifs that bind to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. The gene was originally identified because of its amplification in a human glioblastoma, and previous studies have shown it to be amplified in a significant proportion of mesenchymal tumors, such as childhood sarcomas. Here we evaluate GLI gene expression in bone and soft tissue sarcomas of adult patients. Samples from 40 patients (37 sarcomas and 3 benign mesenchymal tumors) and samples of 15 normal mesenchymal tissues were examined for GLI gene amplification and expression by Southern hybridization, reverse transcription-PCR of tissue RNA, and immunohistochemistry, using a new polyclonal GLI antibody developed against an epitope outside of the zinc finger region. In contrast to childhood sarcomas, amplification of the GLI gene was not observed in sarcomas of adult patients. Although GLI gene expression in sarcomas was significantly higher than that in normal mesenchymal tissues (P < 0.0001), the levels were very variable. Attempts to correlate the expression data with different pathophysiological parameters only showed a significant relationship to tumor grade. Based on these data, increased levels of GLI gene expression may be indicative of the aggressiveness of the tumor. (+info
Pulmonary metastases from soft tissue sarcoma: analysis of patterns of diseases and postmetastasis survival.
OBJECTIVE: To report the patterns of disease and postmetastasis survival for patients with pulmonary metastases from soft tissue sarcoma in a large group of patients treated at a single institution. Clinical factors that influence postmetastasis survival are analyzed. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: For patients with soft tissue sarcoma, the lungs are the most common site of metastatic disease. Although pulmonary metastases most commonly arise from primary tumors in the extremities, they may arise from almost any primary site or histology. To date, resection of disease has been the only effective therapy for metastatic sarcoma. METHODS: From July 1982 to February 1997, 3149 adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma were admitted and treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. During this interval, 719 patients either developed or presented with lung metastases. Patients were treated with resection of metastatic disease whenever possible. Disease-specific survival was the endpoint of the study. Time to death was modeled using the method of Kaplan and Meier. The association of factors to time-to-event endpoints was analyzed using the log-rank test for univariate analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The overall median survival from diagnosis of pulmonary metastasis for all patients was 15 months. The 3-year actuarial survival rate was 25%. The ability to resect all metastatic disease completely was the most important prognostic factor for survival. Patients treated with complete resection had a median survival of 33 months and a 3-year actuarial survival rate of 46%. For patients treated with nonoperative therapy, the median survival was 11 months. A disease-free interval of more than 12 months before the development of metastases was also a favorable prognostic factor. Unfavorable factors included the histologic variants of liposarcoma and malignant peripheral nerve tumors and patient age older than 50 years at the time of treatment of metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Resection of metastatic disease is the single most important factor that determines outcome in these patients. Long-term survival is possible in selected patients, particularly when recurrent pulmonary disease is resected. Surgical excision should remain the treatment of choice for metastases of soft tissue sarcoma to the lung. (+info