An 18-mer peptide fragment of prosaposin ameliorates place navigation disability, cortical infarction, and retrograde thalamic degeneration in rats with focal cerebral ischemia.
It was previously reported that prosaposin possesses neurotrophic activity that is ascribed to an 18-mer peptide comprising the hydrophilic sequence of the rat saposin C domain. To evaluate the effect of the 18-mer peptide on ischemic neuronal damage, the peptide was infused in the left lateral ventricle immediately after occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SP-SH) rats. The treatment ameliorated the ischemia-induced space navigation disability and cortical infarction and prevented secondary thalamic degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. In culture experiments, treatment with the 18-mer peptide attenuated free radical-induced neuronal injury at low concentrations (0.002 to 2 pg/mL), and the peptide at higher concentrations (0.2 to 20 ng/mL) protected neurons against hypoxic insult. Furthermore, a saposin C fragment comprising the 18-mer peptide bound to synaptosomal fractions of the cerebral cortex, and this binding decreased at the 1st day after MCA occlusion and recovered to the preischemic level at the 7th day after ischemia. These findings suggest that the 18-mer peptide ameliorates neuronal damage in vivo and in vitro through binding to the functional receptor, although the cDNA encoding prosaposin receptor has not been determined yet. (+info)
Sphingolipid activator proteins are required for epidermal permeability barrier formation.
The epidermal permeability barrier is maintained by extracellular lipid membranes within the interstices of the stratum corneum. Ceramides, the major components of these multilayered membranes, derive in large part from hydrolysis of glucosylceramides mediated by stratum corneum beta-glucocerebrosidase (beta-GlcCerase). Prosaposin (pSAP) is a large precursor protein that is proteolytically cleaved to form four distinct sphingolipid activator proteins, which stimulate enzymatic hydrolysis of sphingolipids, including glucosylceramide. Recently, pSAP has been eliminated in a mouse model using targeted deletion and homologous recombination. In addition to the extracutaneous findings noted previously, our present data indicate that pSAP deficiency in the epidermis has significant consequences including: 1) an accumulation of epidermal glucosylceramides together with below normal levels of ceramides; 2) alterations in lipids that are bound by ester linkages to proteins of the cornified cell envelope; 3) a thickened stratum lucidum with evidence of scaling; and 4) a striking abnormality in lamellar membrane maturation within the interstices of the stratum corneum. Together, these results demonstrate that the production of pSAP, and presumably mature sphingolipid activator protein generation, is required for normal epidermal barrier formation and function. Moreover, detection of significant amounts of covalently bound omega-OH-GlcCer in pSAP-deficient epidermis suggests that deglucosylation to omega-OH-Cer is not a requisite step prior to covalent attachment of lipid to cornified envelope proteins. (+info)
An Asn > Lys substitution in saposin B involving a conserved amino acidic residue and leading to the loss of the single N-glycosylation site in a patient with metachromatic leukodystrophy and normal arylsulphatase A activity.
Sphingolipid activator proteins are small glycoproteins required for the degradation of sphingolipids by specific lysosomal hydrolases. Four of them, called saposins, are encoded by the prosaposin gene, the product of which is proteolytically cleaved into the four mature saposin proteins (saposins A, B, C, D). One of these, saposin B, is necessary in the hydrolysis of sulphatide by arylsulphatase A where it presents the solubilised substrate to the enzyme. As an alternative to arylsulphatase A deficiency, deficiency of saposin B causes metachromatic leukodystrophy. We identified a previously undescribed mutation (N215K) in the prosaposin gene of a patient with metachromatic leukodystrophy but with normal arylsulphatase A activity and elevated sulphatide in urine. The mutation involves a highly conserved amino acidic residue and abolishes the only N-glycosylation site of saposin B. (+info)
Secretion of prosaposin, a multifunctional protein, by breast cancer cells.
Western blotting and immunodetection with three antibodies were used to probe conditioned media of breast cancer cells (MDA231, MDA435, MCF-7) for prosaposin, a lysosomal protein that occurs in milk. It was readily detected in media from these cells, and from that of an sv40-transformed mammary epithelial cell, HBL100, but not from medium of human neural tumor cells (SK-N-MC). In cultures of MCF-7 cells, the prosaposin pattern of secretion over time closely resembled that of procathepsin D, another lysosomal protein occurring in milk. Supplementing medium with 17beta-estradiol (0. 1-100 nM) dose dependently increased secretion of both proteins after 48 h without changes in cell viability. The influence of 17beta-estradiol on secretion could play a role in the trophic activity of prosaposin in cellular differentiation and cell death protection. In concert with other lysosomal proteins in the tumor environment, such as procathepsin D, prosaposin may be a factor in eliminating barriers to tumor metastasis by facilitating hydrolysis of membrane glycolipids. The number of milk proteins known to be secreted by breast cancer cells is growing. There is evidence that at least some of these may be secreted in an endocrine manner in the normal, non-lactating breast. (+info)
Crystal structure of plant aspartic proteinase prophytepsin: inactivation and vacuolar targeting.
We determined at 2.3 A resolution the crystal structure of prophytepsin, a zymogen of a barley vacuolar aspartic proteinase. In addition to the classical pepsin-like bilobal main body of phytepsin, we also traced most of the propeptide, as well as an independent plant-specific domain, never before described in structural terms. The structure revealed that, in addition to the propeptide, 13 N-terminal residues of the mature phytepsin are essential for inactivation of the enzyme. Comparison of the plant-specific domain with NK-lysin indicates that these two saposin-like structures are closely related, suggesting that all saposins and saposin-like domains share a common topology. Structural analysis of prophytepsin led to the identification of a putative membrane receptor-binding site involved in Golgi-mediated transport to vacuoles. (+info)
Structural and membrane-binding properties of saposin D.
Saposin D is generated together with three similar proteins, saposins A, B and C, from a common precursor, called prosaposin, in acidic organelles such as late endosomes and lysosomes. Although saposin D has been reported to stimulate the enzymatic hydrolysis of sphingomyelin and ceramide, its physiological role has not yet been clearly established. In the present study we examined structural and membrane-binding properties of saposin D. At acidic pH, saposin D showed a great affinity for phospholipid membranes containing an anionic phospholipid such as phosphatidylserine or phosphatidic acid. The binding of saposin D caused destabilization of the lipid surface and, conversely, the association with the membrane markedly affected the fluorescence properties of saposin D. The presence of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles greatly enhanced the intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence of saposin D, which contains tyrosines but not tryptophan residues. The structural properties of saposin D were investigated in detail using advanced MS analysis. It was found that the main form of saposin D consists of 80 amino acid residues and that the six cysteine residues are linked in the following order: Cys5-Cys78, Cys8-Cys72 and Cys36-Cys47. The disulfide pattern of saposin D is identical with that previously established for two other saposins, B and C, which also exhibit a strong affinity for lipids. The common disulfide structure probably has an important role in the interaction of these proteins with membranes. The analysis of the sugar moiety of saposin D revealed that the single N-glycosylation site present in the molecule is mainly modified by high-mannose-type structures varying from two to six hexose residues. Deglycosylation had no effect on the interaction of saposin D with phospholipid membranes, indicating that the glycosylation site is not related to the lipid-binding site. The association of saposin D with membranes was highly dependent on the composition of the bilayer. Neither ceramide nor sphingomyelin, sphingolipids whose hydrolysis is favoured by saposin D, promoted its binding, while the presence of an acidic phospholipid such as phosphatidylserine or phosphatidic acid greatly favoured the interaction of saposin D with vesicles at low pH. These results suggest that, in the acidic organelles where saposins are localized, anionic phospholipids may be determinants of the saposin D topology and, conversely, saposin D may affect the lipid organization of anionic phospholipid-containing membranes. (+info)
Role of sphingolipids in the transport of prosaposin to the lysosomes.
Prosaposin is the precursor of four lysosomal saposins that promote the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) by acidic hydrolases. GSLs contain a hydrophobic ceramide moiety, which acts as a membrane anchor, and a hydrophilic oligosaccharide chain that faces the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and extracellular spaces. By using fumonisin B1, PDMP and D609, we tested the hypothesis that sphingolipids mediate the transport of prosaposin to the lysosomes. Fumonisin B1 interferes with the synthesis of ceramide, PDMP blocks the formation of glucosylceramide and D609 blocks the formation of sphingomyelin. Fumonisin B1 produced a 59;-85% decrease in the density of gold particles in the lysosomes of CHO and NRK cells immunolabeled with anti-prosaposin antibody, and a 55% reduction in the lysosomes of CHO cells stably transfected with an expression vector containing a human prosaposin cDNA. To examine whether the mannose 6-phosphate receptor pathway was affected by this treatment, NRK and CHO cells treated or not with fumonisin B1 were labeled with anti-cathepsin A antibody. The results showed no significant differences in labeling of the lysosomes, suggesting that the effect of fumonisin B1 was specific. When fumonisin B1 and D609 were added to the media of transfected CHO cells, a decrease in immunofluorescence with anti-prosaposin antibody was observed by confocal microscopy. PDMP did not cause any reduction in immunoreactivity, indicating that sphingolmyelin appears to be involved in this process. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that sphingolipids, possibly sphingomyelin, are involved in the transport of prosaposin to the lysosomes. (+info)
Proteinase inhibitors from desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria: engineering of both P(1) and P(1)' residues converts a potent chymotrypsin inhibitor to a potent trypsin inhibitor.
Two peptides, SGCI and SGTI, that inhibited chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively, were isolated from the haemolymph of Schistocerca gregaria. Their primary structures were found to be identical with SGP-2 and SGP-1, two of a series of peptides isolated from ovaries of the same species (A. Hamdaoui et al., FEBS Lett. 422 (1998) 74-78). All these peptides are composed of 35-36 amino acid residues and contain three homologous disulfide bridges. The residues imparting specificity to SGCI and SGTI were identified as Leu-30 and Arg-29, respectively. The peptides were synthesised by solid-phase peptide synthesis, and the synthetic ones displayed the same inhibition as the natural forms: SGCI is a strong inhibitor of chymotrypsin (K(i) = 6.2 x 10(-12) M), and SGTI is a rather weak inhibitor of trypsin (K(i) = 2.1 x 10(-7) M). The replacement of P(1) then P(1)' residues of SGCI with trypsin-specific residues increased affinity towards trypsin 3600- and 1100-fold, respectively, thus SGCI was converted to a strong trypsin inhibitor (K(i) = 5.0 x 10(-12) M) that retained some inhibitory affinity towards chymotrypsin (K(i) = 3.5 x 10(-8) M). The documented role of both P(1) and P(1)' highlights the importance of S(1)'P(1)' interactions in enzyme-inhibitor complexes. (+info)