Phylogeography and divergence in the chloroplast genome of Western Australian Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum).
Western Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) is widespread throughout Western Australia across the semiarid and arid regions. The diversity and phylogeographic patterns within the chloroplast genome of S. spicatum were investigated using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 23 populations. The chloroplast diversity was structured into two main clades that were geographically separated, one centred in the southern (semiarid region) and the other in the northern (arid) region. Fragmentation due to climatic instability was identified as the most likely influence on the differentiation of the lineages. The lineage in the arid region showed a greater level of differentiation than that in the southern region, suggesting a higher level of gene flow or a more recent range expansion of sandalwood in the southern region. The phylogeographic pattern in the chloroplast genome is congruent with that detected in the nuclear genome, which identified different genetic influences between the regions and also suggested a more recent expansion of sandalwood in the southern region. (+info)
Antimycobacterial and antiplasmodial unsaturated carboxylic acid from the twigs of Scleropyrum wallichianum.
From the twigs of Scleropyrum wallichianum, a new unsaturated carboxylic acid, scleropyric acid (1), two new esters, beta-sitosteryl-3-O-scleropyrate (2) and stigmasteryl-3-O-scleropyrate (3), and two well-known sterols, beta-sitosterol (4) and stigmasterol (5), were isolated and characterized using spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 exhibited antimycobacterial activity with an MIC value of 25 microg/ml and showed antiplasmodial activity with an IC50 value of 7.2 microg/ml. Compounds 2 and 3 were inactive in both assays. (+info)
Antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of Thesium chinense Turcz extracts and its major flavonoids, kaempferol and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside.
The ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts, and the two flavonoids kaempferol 1 and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside 2 isolated from whole plants of Thesium chinense Turcz were investigated for their antiinflammatory and analgesic activities. For the antiinflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and xylene-induced mouse ear edema models, and for the analgesic activity, the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test was used. The ethyl acetate extract and two flavonoids showed significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) and dose-dependent antiinflammatory and analgesic activity. The chloroform extract was inactive in the assay. (+info)
Host range and selectivity of the hemiparasitic plant Thesium chinense (Santalaceae).