Components of the Salmonella flagellar export apparatus and classification of export substrates.
Until now, identification of components of the flagellar protein export apparatus has been indirect. We have now identified these components directly by establishing whether mutants defective in putative export components could translocate export substrates across the cytoplasmic membrane into the periplasmic space. Hook-type proteins could be exported to the periplasm of rod mutants, indicating that rod protein export does not have to precede hook-type protein export and therefore that both types of proteins belong to a single export class, the rod/hook-type class, which is distinct from the filament-type class. Hook-capping protein (FlgD) and hook protein (FlgE) required FlhA, FlhB, FliH, FliI, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR for their export to the periplasm. In the case of flagellin as an export substrate, because of the phenomenon of hook-to-filament switching of export specificity, it was necessary to use temperature-sensitive mutants and establish whether flagellin could be exported to the cell exterior following a shift from the permissive to the restrictive temperature. Again, FlhA, FlhB, FliH, FliI, and FliO were required for its export. No suitable temperature-sensitive fliQ or fliR mutants were available. FliP appeared not to be required for flagellin export, but we suspect that the temperature-sensitive FliP protein continued to function at the restrictive temperature if incorporated at the permissive temperature. Thus, we conclude that these eight proteins are general components of the flagellar export pathway. FliJ was necessary for export of hook-type proteins (FlgD and FlgE); we were unable to test whether FliJ is needed for export of filament-type proteins. We suspect that FliJ may be a cytoplasmic chaperone for the hook-type proteins and possibly also for FliE and the rod proteins. FlgJ was not required for the export of the hook-type proteins; again, because of lack of a suitable temperature-sensitive mutant, we were unable to test whether it was required for export of filament-type proteins. Finally, it was established that there is an interaction between the processes of outer ring assembly and of penetration of the outer membrane by the rod and nascent hook, the latter process being of course necessary for passage of export substrates into the external medium. During the brief transition stage from completion of rod assembly and initiation of hook assembly, the L ring and perhaps the capping protein FlgD can be regarded as bona fide export components, with the L ring being in a formal sense the equivalent of the outer membrane secretin structure of type III virulence factor export systems. (+info)
Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of three Salmonella rapid detection kits using fresh and frozen poultry environmental samples versus those of standard plating.
To reduce human exposure to Salmonella spp. in poultry products, broiler chicken flocks have been tested by culture methods. Since the standard techniques may take 3 to 5 days, rapid detection methods have been developed. In this study we tested the performance of three rapid tests originally developed for food samples by using environmental samples obtained from poultry houses. These rapid tests were Reveal, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from Neogen Corp.; BIND, a bacterial ice nucleation detection method from Idetek Corp.; and a filter monitor method from Future Medical Technologies, Inc. For the standard culture, brilliant green with novabiocin and xylose-lysine-tergitol-4 agar were used for presumptive identification, and identities were confirmed by using poly-O antisera. Environmental samples were collected from farms belonging to an integrated poultry company prior to chick placement and 1 week before slaughter. Sensitivities, specificities, and predictive values with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Statistical differences were determined by using McNemar's chi square test. The sensitivities of the different tests were not stable, varying widely between sample times, and were affected by freezing of the samples. All of the rapid tests had low sensitivities, which led to many false-negative results. All tests were able to detect Salmonella spp. at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml in at least one of four trials. The BIND and Reveal tests were simple to use with multiple samples and reduced laboratory time by up to 1 day. Based on our results, we do not recommend that any of these rapid tests, in their present state of development, be utilized with environmental samples collected with drag swabs. (+info)
The Salmonella invasin SipB induces macrophage apoptosis by binding to caspase-1.
Recently, Salmonella spp. were shown to induce apoptosis in infected macrophages. The mechanism responsible for this process is unknown. In this report, we establish that the Inv-Spa type III secretion apparatus target invasin SipB is necessary and sufficient for the induction of apoptosis. Purified SipB microinjected into macrophages led to cell death. Binding studies show that SipB associates with the proapoptotic protease caspase-1. This interaction results in the activation of caspase-1, as seen in its proteolytic maturation and the processing of its substrate interleukin-1beta. Caspase-1 activity is essential for the cytotoxicity. Functional inhibition of caspase-1 activity by acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethyl ketone blocks macrophage cytotoxicity, and macrophages lacking caspase-1 are not susceptible to Salmonella-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the data demonstrate that SipB functions as an analog of the Shigella invasin IpaB. (+info)
Evaluation of accuracy and repeatability of identification of food-borne pathogens by automated bacterial identification systems.
The performances of five automated microbial identification systems, relative to that of a reference identification system, for their ability to accurately and repeatedly identify six common food-borne pathogens were assessed. The systems assessed were the MicroLog system (Biolog Inc., Hayward, Calif.), the Microbial Identification System (MIS; MIDI Inc., Newark, Del.), the VITEK system (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), the MicroScan WalkAway 40 system (Dade-MicroScan International, West Sacramento, Calif.), and the Replianalyzer system (Oxoid Inc., Nepean, Ontario, Canada). The sensitivities and specificities of these systems for the identification of food-borne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli were determined with 40 reference positive isolates and 40 reference negative isolates for each pathogen. The sensitivities of these systems for the identification of these pathogens ranged from 42.5 to 100%, and the specificities of these systems for the identification of these pathogens ranged from 32.5 to 100%. Some of the systems had difficulty correctly identifying the reference isolates when the results were compared to those from the reference identification tests. The sensitivity of MIS for the identification of S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, and C. jejuni, for example, ranged from 47.5 to 72. 5%. The sensitivity of the Microlog system for the identification of E. coli was 72.5%, and the sensitivity of the VITEK system for the identification of B. cereus was 42.5%. The specificities of four of the five systems for the identification of all of the species tested with the available databases were greater than or equal to 97.5%; the exception was MIS for the identification of C. jejuni, which displayed a specificity of 32.5% when it was tested with reference negative isolates including Campylobacter coli and other Campylobacter species. All systems had >80% sensitivities for the identification of Salmonella species and Listeria species at the genus level. The repeatability of these systems for the identification of test isolates ranged from 30 to 100%. Not all systems included all six pathogens in their databases; thus, some species could not be tested with all systems. The choice of automated microbial identification system for the identification of a food-borne pathogen would depend on the availability of identification libraries within the systems and the performance of the systems for the identification of the pathogen. (+info)
How intracellular bacteria survive: surface modifications that promote resistance to host innate immune responses.
Bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence factors in response to environmental signals. In the case of salmonellae, many virulence factors are regulated via PhoP/PhoQ, a two-component signal transduction system that is repressed by magnesium and calcium in vitro. PhoP/PhoQ-activated genes promote intracellular survival within macrophages, whereas PhoP-repressed genes promote entrance into epithelial cells and macrophages by macropinocytosis and stimulate epithelial cell cytokine production. PhoP-activated genes include those that alter the cell envelope through structural alterations of lipopolysaccharide and lipid A, the bioactive component of lipopolysaccharide. PhoP-activated changes in the bacterial envelope likely promote intracellular survival by increasing resistance to host cationic antimicrobial peptides and decreasing host cell cytokine production. (+info)
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of oral black-pigmented bacteria induce tumor necrosis factor production by LPS-refractory C3H/HeJ macrophages in a way different from that of Salmonella LPS.
Some lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations from S- or R-form members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and oral black-pigmented bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia) are known to activate LPS-refractory C3H/HeJ macrophages. When contaminating proteins are removed from R-form LPS of Enterobacteriaceae by repurification, however, this ability is lost. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of LPS from P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, Salmonella minnesota, and Salmonella abortusequi to induce production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in gamma interferon-primed C3H/HeJ macrophages before and after repurification. P. abortusequi S-LPS was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography into two LPS forms: SL-LPS, having homologous long O-polysaccharide chains, and SS-LPS having short oligosaccharide chains. Prior to repurification, all LPS forms except SL-LPS induced TNF production in both C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN macrophages. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that repurification removed contaminating protein from the preparations, and repurified SS-LPS and S. minnesota Ra-LPS no longer stimulated TNF production in C3H/HeJ macrophages, although C3H/HeN macrophages remained responsive. In contrast, repurified oral bacterial LPS retained the capacity to induce TNF production in C3H/HeJ macrophages. Oral bacterial LPS preparations also were not antagonized by excess inactive, repurified SL-LPS; Ra-LPS; Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A, a competitive LPS antagonist, or paclitaxel, an LPS agonist, and they were comparatively resistant to polymyxin B treatment. Nevertheless, oral bacterial LPS was less toxic to D-galactosamine-treated C3H/HeN mice than was LPS from Salmonella. These findings indicate that the active molecule(s) and mode of action of LPS from P. gingivalis and P. intermedia are quite different from those of LPS from Salmonella. (+info)
The cyclic structure of microcin J25, a 21-residue peptide antibiotic from Escherichia coli.
Microcin J25 (MccJ25) is the single representative of the immunity group J of the microcin group of peptide antibiotics produced by Enterobacteriaceae. It induces bacterial filamentation in susceptible cells in a non-SOS-dependent pathway [R. A. Salomon and R. Farias (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 7428-7435]. MccJ25 was purified to homogeneity from the growth medium of a microcin-overproducing Escherichia coli strain by reverse-phase HPLC. Based on amino acid composition and absolute configuration determination, liquid secondary ion and electrospray mass spectrometry, extensive two-dimensional NMR, enzymatic and chemical degradations studies, the structure of MccJ25 was elucidated as a 21-residue peptide, cyclo(-Val1-Gly-Ile-Gly-Thr- Pro-Ile-Ser-Phe-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly-His-Val-Pro-Glu-Tyr-Phe21- ). Although MccJ25 showed high resistance to most of endoproteases, linearization by thermolysin occurred from cleavage at the Phe21-Val1 bond and led to a single peptide, MccJ25-L. While MccJ25 exhibited remarkable antibiotic activity towards Salmonella newport and several E. coli strains (minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 0.2 microgram.mL-1), the thermolysin-linearized microcin showed a dramatic decrease of the activity, indicating that the cyclic structure is essential for the MccJ25 biological properties. As MccJ25 is ribosomally synthesized as a larger peptide precursor endowed with an N-terminal extremity, the present study shows that removal of this extension and head-tail cyclization of the resulting propeptide are the only post-translational modifications involved in the maturation of MccJ25, that appears as the first cyclic microcin. (+info)
Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.
The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches. (+info)