The epizootiology and pathogenesis of thyroid hyperplasia in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario.
The thyroid glands of coho salmon collected at different stages of their anadromous migration exhibited progressive and extensive hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The incidence of overt nodule formation rose from 5% in fish collected in August to 24% in fish collected in October. The histological picture of the goiters was similar to that found in thiourea-treated teleosts and thiouracil-treated mammals. There was a concomitant, significant decrease in serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine values between September and October (thyroxine, 1.0+/-0.3 mug/100 ml and 0.4 mug/100 ml in September and October, respectively; triiodothyronine, 400.3+/-51.6 ng/100 ml and 80.2 ng/100 ml in September and October, respectively) and marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyrotrophs. These data indicate a progressive hypothyroid condition which, although it may be linked to iodide deficiency, may well be enhanced by other environmental factors. The evidence for involvement of other factors is discussed. (+info)
Growth hormone induces insulin-like growth factor-I gene transcription by a synergistic action of STAT5 and HNF-1alpha.
Salmon insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) expression is, as in mammals, induced by growth hormone (GH). To elucidate the mechanism by which GH stimulates the transcription of the IGF-I gene, we transiently transfected Hep3B cells expressing the rat GH receptor with a sIGF-I promoter-luciferase reporter construct. Activation of the construct by GH added to the medium of the transfected cells was observed when two specific transcription factors, STAT5 and HNF-1alpha, were simultaneously overexpressed in these cells. This finding demonstrates for the first time a GH-dependent activation of an IGF-I promoter construct in an immortalized laboratory cell line. (+info)
Inheritance of nuclear DNA markers in gynogenetic haploid pink salmon.
We describe the inheritance of 460 PCR-based loci in the polyploid-derived pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) genome using gynogenetic haploid embryos. We detected a length polymorphism in a growth hormone gene (GH-2) intron that is caused by an 81 bp insertion homologous to the 3' end of the salmonid short interspersed repetitive element (SINE) SmaI. Such insertion polymorphisms within species bring into question the use of SINEs as phylogenetic markers. We confirmed that a microsatellite locus encodes a PCR-null allele that is responsible for an apparent deficit of heterozygotes in a population sample from Prince William Sound. Another set of microsatellite primers amplified alleles of the same molecular weight from both loci of a duplicated pair. In our analysis of several PCR-based multilocus techniques, we failed to detect evidence of comigrating fragments produced by duplicated loci. Segregation analysis of PCR-based markers using gynogenetic haploid embryos ensures that the interpretation of molecular variation is not complicated by heterozygosity, diploidy, or gene duplication. We urge investigators to test the inheritance of polymorphisms in salmonids prior to using them to measure genetic variation. (+info)
Nitrate removal in closed-system aquaculture by columnar denitrification.
The columnar denitrification method of nitrate-nitrogen removal from high-density, closed system, salmonid aquaculture was investigated and found to be feasible. However, adequate chemical monitoring was found to be necessary for the optimization and quality control of this method. When methanol-carbon was not balanced with inlet nitrate-nitrogen, the column effluent became unsatisfactory for closed-system fish culture due to the presence of excess amounts of nitrite, ammonia, sulfide, and dissolved organic carbon. Sulfide production was also influenced by column maturity and residence time. Methane-carbon was found to be unsatisfactory as an exogenous carbon source. Endogenous carbon could not support high removal efficiencies. Freshwater columns adpated readily to an artificial seawater with a salinity of 18% without observable inhibition. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacterial flora was mainly rod forms with the Peritricha (protozoa) dominating as the primary consumers. Denitrifying bacteria isolated from freshwater columns were tentatively identified as species of Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes. A pilot plant column was found to behave in a manner similar to the laboratory columns except that nitrite production was never observed. (+info)
Different prevalences of Renibacterium salmoninarum detected by ELISA in Alaskan chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha spawned from freshwater and seawater.
Soluble antigen of Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs) was detected by a polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at significantly higher prevalences in adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that matured in freshwater than in the same cohort of fish spawned after maturation in seawater. The cumulative results were consistent during 4 yr of comparison at the Little Port Walter Hatchery on Baranof Island, Alaska, USA. Possible causes for this difference are discussed. Maturation of chinook salmon broodstock in seawater has become a practical strategy at this hatchery to reduce the prevalence of Rs-positive parent fish and the numbers of culled eggs. (+info)
Dynamics of nontypical apoptotic morphological changes visualized by green fluorescent protein in living cells with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus infection.
Morphologically, apoptotic cells are characterized by highly condensed membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies. Recently, we reported that apoptosis precedes necrosis in a fish cell line infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). In the present study, we tested the possibility that nontypical apoptosis is a component of IPNV-induced fish cell death. A variant type of green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was expressed in a fish cell line such that EGFP served as a protein marker for visualizing dynamic apoptotic cell morphological changes and for tracing membrane integrity changes during IPNV infection. Direct morphological changes were visualized by fluorescence microscopy by EGFP in living cells infected with IPNV. The nontypical apoptotic morphological change stage occurred during the pre-late stage (6 to 7 h postinfection). Nontypical apoptotic features, including highly condensed membrane blebbing, occurred during the middle apoptotic stage. At the pre-late apoptotic stage, membrane vesicles quickly formed, blebbed, and were finally pinched off from the cell membrane. At the same time, at this pre-late apoptotic stage, apoptotic cells formed unique small holes in their membranes that ranged from 0.39 to 0.78 micrometer according to examination by scanning electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy. Quantitation of the intra- and extracellular release of EGFP by CHSE-214-EGFP cells after IPNV infection was done by Western blotting and fluorometry. Membrane integrity was quickly lost during the late apoptotic stage (after 8 h postinfection), and morphological change and membrane integrity loss could be prevented and blocked by treatment with apoptosis inhibitors such as cycloheximide, genistein, and EDTA before IPNV infection. Together, these findings show the apoptotic features at the onset of pathology in host cells (early and middle apoptotic stages), followed secondarily by nontypical apoptosis (pre-late apoptotic stage) and then by postapoptotic necrosis (late apoptotic stage), of a fish cell line. Our results demonstrate that nontypical apoptosis is a component of IPNV-induced fish cell death. (+info)
A transient increase in renal clearance of phosphate in response to continuous infusion of salmon calcitonin in rats.
The effects of intravenous carrier-free salmon calcitonin on renal clearances of phosphate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were studied in male parathyroid-ectomized (PTX) and intact rats. Both natural and synthetic hormone, when infused at constant rates (0.005 approximately 0.5 MRC U/hr), produced a rapid increase (peaking at about 60-90 min) in phosphate clearance. However, the maximal increase was transient in nature in PTX rats. In intact rats, the phosphaturic response was somewhat more pronounced and the decline after the peak was rather modest. When a large amount (4 MRC U) of calcitonin was given in divided doses, the second dose produced a lesser extent of phosphaturia in both intact and PTX rats. The phosphaturic response was accompanied by an increase in sodium and potassium clearances in PTX rats and by an increase in potassium clearance in intact rats. A fall in the apparent clearance values for calcium and magnesium occurred and was maintained throughout the infusion period of hormone in both intact and PTX rats. In conclusion, PTX rats respond to the intravenous administration of salmon calcitonin with a transient phosphaturic response which is accompanied by parallel diuresis of sodium and potassium along with sustained retention of calcium and magnesium by the kidney. (+info)
Studies on the immunogenicity of protamines in humans and experimental animals by means of a micro-complement fixation test.
A complement fixation study with human, monkey and rabbit sera, using purified sperm nuclear basic proteins as antigens, led to the following conclusions. (1) Protamines, the sperm-specific basic nuclear proteins, may be immunogenic in mammalians. (2) Antibodies detected in the indirect immunofluorescence test on human swollen sperm heads in sera from infertile and vasectomized men, are directed primarily against human protamines. (3) The results obtained suggested that differences in the immunization site and/or in the configuration of the immunizing protamine, may lead to the formation of antibodies directed against different antigenic determinants. Autoimmunity to protamines, following vasectomy or in infertile men, is accompanied by the formation of antibodies cross-reacting with common antigenic determinants present in protamines of other species. Induction of immunity to protamines by means of immunization with protamines-RNA complexes (in rabbits), or protamine-insulin complexes (in humans), leads to the formation of antibodies reacting more specifically with the immunizing protamine, showing only slight cross-reaction with other protamines. (4) The histone-like fraction present in mature human spermatozoa is composed mainly of histone fraction H2B. (+info)