(1/592) Conserved mechanism of PLAG1 activation in salivary gland tumors with and without chromosome 8q12 abnormalities: identification of SII as a new fusion partner gene.

We have previously shown (K. Kas et al, Nat. Genet., 15: 170-174, 1997) that the developmentally regulated zinc finger gene pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) is the target gene in 8q12 in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands with t(3;8)(p21;q12) translocations. The t(3;8) results in promoter swapping between PLAG1 and the constitutively expressed gene for beta-catenin (CTNNB1), leading to activation of PLAG1 expression and reduced expression of CTNNB1. Here we have studied the expression of PLAG1 by Northern blot analysis in 47 primary benign and malignant human tumors with or without cytogenetic abnormalities of 8q12. Overexpression of PLAG1 was found in 23 tumors (49%). Thirteen of 17 pleomorphic adenomas with a normal karyotype and 5 of 10 with 12q13-15 abnormalities overexpressed PLAG1, which demonstrates that PLAG1 activation is a frequent event in adenomas irrespective of karyotype. In contrast, PLAG1 was overexpressed in only 2 of 11 malignant salivary gland tumors analyzed, which suggests that, at least in salivary gland tumors, PLAG1 activation preferentially occurs in benign tumors. PLAG1 over-expression was also found in three of nine mesenchymal tumors, i.e., in two uterine leiomyomas and one leiomyosarcoma. RNase protection, rapid amplification of 5'-cDNA ends (5'-RACE), and reverse transcription-PCR analyses of five adenomas with a normal karyotype revealed fusion transcripts in three tumors. Nucleotide sequence analysis of these showed that they contained fusions between PLAG1 and CTNNB1 (one case) or PLAG1 and a novel fusion partner gene, i.e., the gene encoding the transcription elongation factor SII (two cases). The fusions occurred in the 5' noncoding region of PLAG1, leading to exchange of regulatory control elements and, as a consequence, activation of PLAG1 gene expression. Because all of the cases had grossly normal karyotypes, the rearrangements must result from cryptic rearrangements. The results suggest that in addition to chromosomal translocations and cryptic rearrangements, PLAG1 may also be activated by mutations or indirect mechanisms. Our findings establish a conserved mechanism of PLAG1 activation in salivary gland tumors with and without 8q12 aberrations, which indicates that such activation is a frequent event in these tumors.  (+info)

(2/592) Salivary gland tumors in Jordan: a retrospective study of 221 patients.

AIM: To evaluate the types and clinical outcome of salivary gland tumors in Jordan. METHODS: Hospital records of 221 patients (85 women and 136 men) with salivary gland tumors, diagnosed from January 1988 to December 1997 were reviewed. The patients were analyzed according to sex, age, histopathological type and site of the tumor. Survival curves for patients with malignant tumors were constructed using Kaplan-Meier's method. RESULTS: Of the total 221 salivary gland tumors, 155 (70.2%) were parotid tumors, 42 (19%) minor salivary gland tumors, 23 (10.4%) submandibular gland tumors, and a single (0.4%) sublingual gland tumor. Most of the tumors (151, or 68.4%) were classified as benign and 70 (31.6%) were malignant. Men to women ratio was 1.6:1, and the age of the patients ranged from 2 to 81 years. The overall 5 and 10 year-survival rates for the 70 malignant tumors were 67% and 53%, respectively, for all tumor stages. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma had the best, and squamous cell carcinoma the worst 10-year survival rate. Patients treated with surgery and subsequent radiation therapy had better survival rates than those treated with surgery or radiation therapy alone. CONCLUSION: The principal site for salivary gland tumors in Jordan population was the parotid, and the pleo- morphic adenoma the most common pathological finding. Tumor characteristics and survival data for the Jordanian population are comparable to those from western countries.  (+info)

(3/592) Bone morphogenetic protein-6 is a marker of serous acinar cell differentiation in normal and neoplastic human salivary gland.

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-6, also known as vegetal-pale-gene-related and decaplentaplegic-vegetal-related) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of multifunctional signaling molecules. BMP-6 appears to play various biological roles in developing tissues, including regulation of epithelial differentiation. To study the possible involvement of BMP-6 in normal and neoplastic human salivary glands, we compared its mRNA and protein expression in 4 fetal and 15 adult salivary glands and in 22 benign and 32 malignant salivary gland tumors. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis indicated that BMP-6 transcripts are expressed at low levels in acinar cells of adult submandibular glands but not in ductal or stromal cells. BMP-6 was immunolocated specifically in serous acini of parotid and submandibular glands. None was found in primitive fetal acini or any other types of cell in adult salivary glands, including mucous acini and epithelial cells of intercalated, striated, and excretory ducts. All 16 cases of acinic cell carcinoma consistently exhibited cytoplasmic BMP-6 staining in the acinar tumor cells. Other cell types in these tumors, including intercalated duct-like cells, clear, vacuolated cells, and nonspecific glandular cells, exhibited no cytoplasmic BMP-6 staining. Other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors lacked BMP-6 immunoreactivity, except in areas of squamous differentiation. The results indicate that in salivary glands, BMP-6 expression is uniquely associated with acinar cell differentiation and suggest that BMP-6 may play a role in salivary gland function. More importantly, our experience of differential diagnostic problems related to salivary gland tumors suggests that the demonstration of consistent and specific BMP-6 immunoreactivity in acinic cell carcinoma is likely to be of clinical value.  (+info)

(4/592) Salivary gland cancer in the United States.

The risk of salivary gland cancer (SGC) is increased in atomic bomb survivors and after radiotherapy, but other risk factors are not well established. Some studies have suggested an association of SGC with breast cancer and with exposure to various viruses or UVB radiation. Corroborating evidence of these associations was sought by using population-based registries to examine the demographic distribution of SGC, patterns of secondary primary cancers after SGC, and risk of SGC with AIDS. SGC incidence per 100,000 persons did not change between 1973 and 1992, averaging 1.2 in males and 0.8 in females, with a steep age gradient. To examine the relationship between UVB exposure and SGC, population-based, age-adjusted incidence rates of SGC were plotted against the UVB insolation of each registry site. Regression analysis suggested no correlation between SGC incidence and increasing UVB insolation (beta = 0.10, R2 = 0.08). SGC also did not appear to be associated with second cancers that have been linked to herpes or papilloma viruses or with AIDS [observed/expected (O/E) ratio, <2.8], but all of these conditions are so uncommon that only very large relative risks would have been statistically significant. Women with SGC before age 35 had a statistically nonsignificant elevation in breast cancer risk [O/E, 3.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-9.65], and older women had no increased risk of breast cancer. SGC patients were at increased risk for nonsalivary, second-primary oropharyngeal cancers (O/E, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.00-5.05), thyroid cancer (O/E, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.07-7.73), and lung cancer (O/E, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.45-2.35), particularly in patients whose SGC was treated with radiotherapy (O/E, 2.83; 95% CI, 2.06-3.80). In summary, SGC remains rare and does not appear to be associated with AIDS, virally related malignancies, or UVB. Patients who have had SGC, however, should be monitored for subsequent oropharyngeal, thyroid, and lung cancers.  (+info)

(5/592) Fine-needle aspiration of secondary neoplasms involving the salivary glands. A report of 36 cases.

Metastases or secondary deposits account for 16% of the malignant neoplasms involving the major salivary glands. A correct diagnosis of a secondary neoplasm is important to avoid unnecessary radical surgery and to guide further therapy. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is an excellent noninvasive diagnostic tool for evaluating salivary gland lesions. We reviewed 36 secondary malignant salivary gland neoplasms evaluated by FNAB. Ancillary studies were performed in selected cases. Follow-up included clinical correlation and review of histologic material. For 4 adenocarcinomas, 4 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 undifferentiated carcinoma, 1 cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, 10 cutaneous melanomas including 1 desmoplastic variant, 3 osteosarcomas, 11 non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and 2 multiple myelomas, there was 1 false-negative FNAB result. The desmoplastic melanoma was interpreted as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. A malignant diagnosis was given in all remaining cases except the secondary basal cell carcinoma, which was diagnosed as a neoplasm with basal cell features. FNAB is a reliable tool to differentiate hematologic malignant neoplasms and melanomas from other salivary gland neoplasms. A complete knowledge of the clinical history, review of previous pathologic materials, and, in some instances, the use of ancillary studies are crucial for recognizing solid malignant neoplasms secondarily involving the salivary glands.  (+info)

(6/592) PLAG1, the main translocation target in pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands, is a positive regulator of IGF-II.

PLAG1, a novel developmentally regulated C2H2 zinc finger gene, is consistently rearranged and overexpressed in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands with 8q12 translocations. In this report, we show that PLAG1 is a nuclear protein that binds DNA in a specific manner. The consensus PLAG1 binding site is a bipartite element containing a core sequence, GRGGC, and a G-cluster, RGGK, separated by seven random nucleotides. DNA binding is mediated mainly via three of the seven zinc fingers, with fingers 6 and 7 interacting with the core and finger 3 with the G-cluster. In transient transactivation assays, PLAG1 specifically activates transcription from its consensus DNA binding site, indicating that PLAG1 is a genuine transcription factor. Potential PLAG1 binding sites were found in the promoter 3 of the human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) gene. We show that PLAG1 binds IGF-II promoter 3 and stimulates its activity. Moreover, IGF-II transcripts derived from the P3 promoter are highly expressed in salivary gland adenomas overexpressing PLAG1. In contrast, they are not detectable in adenomas without abnormal PLAG1 expression nor in normal salivary gland tissue. This indicates a perfect correlation between PLAG1 and IGF-II expression. All of these results strongly suggest that IGF-II is one of the PLAG1 target genes, providing us with the first clue for understanding the role of PLAG1 in salivary gland tumor development.  (+info)

(7/592) Sjogren's syndrome and MALT lymphomas of salivary glands: a DNA-cytometric and interphase-cytogenetic study.

Few and conflicting cytogenetic data are available concerning the chromosomal constitution of (mainly gastric) extranodal marginal zone B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma. The majority of salivary gland MALT lymphomas are thought to develop from longstanding Sjogren's syndrome/benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL). We tried to achieve a better comprehension of related cytogenetic alterations by comparing DNA-ploidy and numerical chromosomal (#) aberrations, assessed by different techniques of DNA cytometry (image cytometry) and interphase cytogenetics using nonradiographic in situ hybridization (centromere specific probes for #3, 7, 12, 18) on 12 cases of BLEL, 13 low-grade MALT lymphomas (LG-MALT-L) and 4 high-grade MALT lymphomas (HG-MALT-L) of salivary gland. Both techniques were applied on tissue sections preferentially, enabling a reliable measurement of histomorphologically identified areas. No case of BLEL showed cytogenetic abnormalities. Three of 4 HG- and 2 of 13 LG-MALT-L exhibited complex chromosomal gains in nonisotopic in situ hybridization, which were reflected by DNA nondiploidy in image cytometry. In 6 of 13 LG- and lof 4 HG-MALT-L, one or two numerical chromosomal aberrations were demonstrated by nonisotopic in situ hybridization, which could not be resolved by image cytometry. In the 11 DNA-diploid LG-MALT-L, trisomies 18, 3, and 12 were found in 36, 12, and 9%, respectively. In conclusion, comparing BLEL, which showed no chromosomal aberrations, with LG- and HG-MALT-L, an increase in frequency and number of numerical aberrations and DNA nondiploidy was seen. Peritetraploid DNA nondiploidy might be characteristic for HG-MALT-L of salivary gland as it is a rare finding in MALT lymphomas of other sites. It is unclear whether the documented chromosomal aberrations in LG-MALT-L, especially increased rate of trisomy 18, indicate a pathogenic impact or merely reflect genetic instability.  (+info)

(8/592) Salivary gland lymphomas in patients with Sjogren's syndrome may frequently develop from rheumatoid factor B cells.

OBJECTIVE: Patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) have an increased risk of developing monoclonal B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (MNHL), which frequently occur in the salivary glands (SG). The transition from the benign lymphocyte infiltrate of the gland that characterizes SS to MNHL is not well understood. Previous sequence analyses of the expressed variable (V) region genes have supported the theory that the surface Ig (sIg) plays an important role in the initial expansion of nonmalignant B cell clones and in lymphomagenesis. However, the antigenic specificities of these B cells were unknown. We describe the specificities of the Ig expressed by 2 cases of MNHL that developed in the SG of 2 patients with SS. METHODS: The expressed V genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from biopsy specimens, sequenced, and subcloned into eukaryotic expression vectors. The constructs were transfected into P3X63-Ag8.653 cells to obtain 2 monoclonal cell lines, each secreting 1 of the sIg expressed by the MNHL. These IgM were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence against a panel of antigens potentially implicated in SS. RESULTS: Our main finding was that the Ig products of the neoplastic B cells were rheumatoid factors (RF). Contrary to expectations, they did not react with nuclear or cytoplasmic antigens, double-stranded DNA, self antigens commonly bound by natural autoantibodies, or SG tissue. CONCLUSION: Previous analyses of V gene use have provided indirect evidence that SG MNHL may frequently express RF. We demonstrate that this hypothesis is true in the 2 patients we studied. Large-scale studies will be needed to establish the exact frequency of RF specificity among SS-associated MNHL.  (+info)