Dopamine stimulates salivary duct cells in the cockroach Periplaneta americana.
This study examines whether the salivary duct cells of the cockroach Periplaneta americana can be stimulated by the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. We have carried out digital Ca2+-imaging experiments using the Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2 and conventional intracellular recordings from isolated salivary glands. Dopamine evokes a slow, almost tonic, and reversible dose-dependent elevation in [Ca2+]i in the duct cells. Upon stimulation with 10(-)6 mol l-1 dopamine, [Ca2+]i rises from 48+/-4 nmol l-1 to 311+/-43 nmol l-1 (mean +/- s.e.m., N=18) within 200-300 s. The dopamine-induced elevation in [Ca2+]i is absent in Ca2+-free saline and is blocked by 10(-)4 mol l-1 La3+, indicating that dopamine induces an influx of Ca2+ across the basolateral membrane of the duct cells. Stimulation with 10(-)6 mol l-1 dopamine causes the basolateral membrane to depolarize from -67+/-1 to -41+/-2 mV (N=10). This depolarization is also blocked by La3+ and is abolished when Na+ in the bath solution is reduced to 10 mmol l-1. Serotonin affects neither [Ca2+]i nor the basolateral membrane potential of the duct cells. These data indicate that the neurotransmitter dopamine, which has previously been shown to stimulate fluid secretion from the glands, also stimulates the salivary duct cells, suggesting that dopamine controls their most probable function, the modification of primary saliva. (+info)
Cloning of gp-340, a putative opsonin receptor for lung surfactant protein D.
Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an oligomeric C type lectin that promotes phagocytosis by binding to microbial surface carbohydrates. A 340-kDa glycoprotein (gp-340) has been shown to bind SP-D in the presence of calcium but does so independently of carbohydrate recognition. This protein exists both in a soluble form and in association with the membranes of alveolar macrophages. The primary structure of gp-340 has been established by molecular cloning, which yielded a 7,686-bp cDNA sequence encoding a polypeptide chain of 2, 413 amino acids. The domain organization features 13 scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains, each separated by an SRCR-interspersed domain, except for SRCRs 4 and 5, which are contiguous. The 13 SRCR domains are followed by two C1r/C1s Uegf Bmp1 domains separated by a 14th SRCR domain and a zona pellucida domain. gp-340 seems to be an alternative spliced form of DMBT1. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that the main sites of synthesis of gp-340 are lung, trachea, salivary gland, small intestine, and stomach. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong staining for gp-340 in alveolar and other tissue macrophages. Immunostaining of the macrophage membrane was either uniform or focal in a way that suggested capping, whereas other macrophages showed strong intracellular staining within the phagosome/phagolysosome compartments. In some macrophages, SP-D and gp-340 were located in the same cellular compartment. Immunoreactive gp-340 was also found in epithelial cells of the small intestine and in the ducts of salivary glands. The distribution of gp-340 in macrophages is compatible with a role as an opsonin receptor for SP-D. (+info)
Immunolocalization of anion exchanger AE2 and Na(+)-HCO(-)(3) cotransporter in rat parotid and submandibular glands.
Salivary glands secrete K(+) and HCO(-)(3) and reabsorb Na(+) and Cl(-), but the identity of transporters involved in HCO(-)(3) transport remains unclear. We investigated localization of Cl(-)/HCO(-)(3) exchanger isoform AE2 and of Na(+)-HCO(-)(3) cotransporter (NBC) in rat parotid gland (PAR) and submandibular gland (SMG) by immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. Immunoblotting of PAR and SMG plasma membranes with specific antibodies against mouse kidney AE2 and rat kidney NBC revealed protein bands at approximately 160 and 180 kDa for AE2 and approximately 130 kDa for NBC, as expected for the AE2 full-length protein and consistent with the apparent molecular mass of NBC in several tissues other than kidney. Immunostaining of fixed PAR and SMG tissue sections revealed specific basolateral staining of PAR acinar cells for AE2 and NBC, but in SMG acinar cells only basolateral AE2 labeling was observed. No AE2 expression was detected in any ducts. Striated, intralobular, and main duct cells of both glands showed NBC expression predominantly at basolateral membranes, with some cells being apically stained. In SMG duct cells, NBC staining exhibited a gradient of distribution from basolateral localization in more proximal parts of the ductal tree to apical localization toward distal parts of the ductal tree. Both immunoblotting signals and immunostaining were abolished in preabsorption experiments with the respective antigens. Thus the mechanisms of fluid and anion secretion in salivary acinar cells may be different between PAR and SMG, and, because NBC was detected in acinar and duct cells, it may play a more important role in transport of HCO(-)(3) by rat salivary duct cells than previously believed. (+info)
Uptake of cationized ferritin by the epithelium of the main excretory duct of the rat submandibular gland.
Previous studies demonstrated that the main excretory duct (MED) of the rat submandibular gland can internalize exogenous protein in addition to reabsorbing and secreting electrolytes. However, more precise studies have not been conducted. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cell types responsible for endocytosis of an exogenous protein (ferritin) and to follow the movements of the endocytosed protein in the ductal epithelial cells. The MEDs of the right submandibular gland of male Wistar rats were exposed near the glands proper and cationized ferritin solution was injected into each MED through a fine glass cannula. The MEDs were removed at intervals after ferritin injection, fixed and examined by transmission electron microscopy. The epithelium of the MED of the rat submandibular gland was pseudostratified and consisted of light (types I and II), dark, tuft and basal cells. Uptake of ferritin by the light (types I and II) and dark cells occurred frequently. Small vesicles and multivesicular bodies containing ferritin particles were observed in the supra-nuclear and lateral nuclear cytoplasm. Endocytosis of tracers by tuft cells was rare. Some of the small vesicles and the multivesicular bodies were acid phosphatase-positive. By 60 min after treatment, ferritin-containing small vesicles and multivesicular bodies appeared in the basal cytoplasm. Ferritin particles were also observed in basal extracellular spaces. The light (types I and II), dark and tuft cells (latter rarely) participated in endocytosis of exogenous proteins in the epithelium of the MED of the rat submandibular gland. Almost all of the internalized proteins appeared to be processed by the lysosomal system, and some proteins were released into the extracellular spaces. (+info)
Immunohistochemical localization of carbonic anhydrases I, II, and VI in the developing rat sublingual and submandibular glands.
Carbonic anhydrase has been localized to the acini and ducts of mature rat salivary glands. This enzyme has been associated with ion transport, a prominent function of striated and excretory ducts in salivary glands, suggesting that it might be used as a marker of ductal differentiation. The purpose of this study was to immunohistochemically document developmental changes in carbonic anhydrase in the ducts of the rat sublingual and submandibular glands. Immunohistochemistry was performed with antibodies to human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes I, II and VI on sections of sublingual and submandibular glands from rats at representative postnatal developmental ages. Reactions were weak in the ducts of both glands at 1 day, then progressively increased. By 42 days, reactions had the adult pattern of virtually none in the mucous or seromucous acini, moderate to strong in the striated and excretory ducts, and none to weak in the intercalated ducts. Weak to moderate reactions were observed in the granular convoluted tubules of the submandibular gland as they became recognizable at age 42 days. Reactions to carbonic anhydrase I and II antibodies also increased from none (1 day) to modest (42 days) in the demilunes of the sublingual gland. The order of reaction intensity of the antibodies was II > I > VI. When localized via these anti-human antibodies, carbonic anhydrase is a useful marker of the functional differentiation of the striated and excretory ducts of the developing rat sublingual and submandibular glands. (+info)
Cell death during development of intercalated ducts in the rat submandibular gland.
Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, occurs during the development of many tissues and organs in almost all multicellular organisms. Although apoptosis of salivary gland cells has been demonstrated in several pathological conditions, the role of apoptosis in the postnatal development of the salivary glands is unknown. We have studied the development of the rat submandibular gland (SMG) during its transition from the perinatal stage to the mature adult stage. Terminal tubule or Type I cells, which synthesize the secretory protein SMG-C, are prominent in the perinatal acini and are believed to form the intercalated ducts of the adult gland. Between 25 days and 30 days after birth, the number of Type I cells and their SMG-C immunoreactivity markedly decreased. Apoptotic cells in association with the developing intercalated ducts were labeled with the Terminal Deoxyribonucleotidyl Transferase-Mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) method. Between 25 and 40 days of age, from 50 to 80% of the apoptotic cells in cryostat sections of the SMG were closely associated with the intercalated ducts. Electron microscopy showed that the Type I cells became vacuolated, their secretory granules were reduced in size and number, and the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum was decreased. Cellular debris resembling apoptotic bodies was phagocytosed by macrophages and adjacent intercalated duct cells. These observations suggest that the loss of Type I cells and reduction of SMG-C immunoreactivity during development of the intercalated ducts of the adult rat SMG is due, at least in part, to apoptosis. (+info)
Chloride channels and salivary gland function.
Fluid and electrolyte transport is driven by transepithelial Cl- movement. The opening of Cl- channels in the apical membrane of salivary gland acinar cells initiates the fluid secretion process, whereas the activation of Cl- channels in both the apical and the basolateral membranes of ductal cells is thought to be necessary for NaCl re-absorption. Saliva formation can be evoked by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation. The composition and flow rate vary greatly, depending on the type of stimulation. As many as five classes of Cl- channels with distinct gating mechanisms have been identified in salivary cells. One of these Cl- channels is activated by intracellular Ca2+, while another is gated by cAMP. An increase in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration is the dominant mechanism triggering fluid secretion from acinar cells, while cAMP may be required for efficient NaCl re-absorption in many ductal cells. In addition to cAMP- and Ca(2+)-gated Cl- channels, agonist-induced changes in membrane potential and cell volume activate different Cl- channels that likely play a role in modulating fluid and electrolyte movement. In this review, the properties of the different types of Cl- currents expressed in salivary gland cells are described, and functions are proposed based on the unique properties of these channels. (+info)
Salivary gland P2 nucleotide receptors.
The effects of ATP on salivary glands have been recognized since 1982. Functional and pharmacological studies of the P2 nucleotide receptors that mediate the effects of ATP and other extracellular nucleotides have been supported by the cloning of receptor cDNAs, by the expression of the receptor proteins, and by the identification in salivary gland cells of multiple P2 receptor subtypes. Currently, there is evidence obtained from pharmacological and molecular biology approaches for the expression in salivary gland of two P2X ligand-gated ion channels, P2Z/P2X7 and P2X4, and two P2Y G protein-coupled receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y2. Activation of each of these receptor subtypes increases intracellular Ca2+, a second messenger with a key role in the regulation of salivary gland secretion. Through Ca2+ regulation and other mechanisms, P2 receptors appear to regulate salivary cell volume, ion and protein secretion, and increased permeability to small molecules that may be involved in cytotoxicity. Some localization of the various salivary P2 receptor subtypes to specific cells and membrane subdomains has been reported, along with evidence for the co-expression of multiple P2 receptor subtypes within specific salivary acinar or duct cells. However, additional studies in vivo and with intact organ preparations are required to define clearly the roles the various P2 receptor subtypes play in salivary gland physiology and pathology. Opportunities for eventual utilization of these receptors as pharmacotherapeutic targets in diseases involving salivary gland dysfunction appear promising. (+info)