AMY-1, a c-Myc-binding protein, is localized in the mitochondria of sperm by association with S-AKAP84, an anchor protein of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
We have reported that a novel c-Myc-binding protein, AMY-1 (associate of Myc-1), stimulated the transcription activity of c-Myc. To access the molecular function of AMY-1, a two-hybrid screening of cDNAs encoding AMY-1-binding proteins was carried out with AMY-1 as a bait using a human HeLa cDNA library, and a clone encoding cAMP-dependent protein kinase anchor protein 149 (AKAP149), was obtained. AMY-1 was found to bind in vitro and in vivo to the regulatory subunit II binding region of AKAP149 and S-AKAP84, a splicing variant of AKAP149 expressed in the testis. AMY-1 was expressed postmeiotically in the testis, as S-AKAP84 was expressed. Furthermore, S-AKAP84 and regulatory subunit II, a regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, made a ternary complex in cells, and AMY-1 was localized in the mitochondria of HeLa and sperm in association with AKAP149 and S-AKAP84, respectively. These results suggest that AMY-1 plays a role in spermatogenesis. (+info)
AMAP-1, a novel testis-specific AMY-1-binding protein, is differentially expressed during the course of spermatogenesis.
AMY-1 has been identified by us as a c-Myc-binding protein and was found to stimulate c-Myc transcription activity. AMY-1 was also found to be associated with AKAP84/149 in the mitochondria in somatic cells and sperm, suggesting that it plays a role in spermatogenesis. To access the molecular function of AMY-1, a two-hybrid screening of cDNAs encoding AMY-1-binding proteins was carried out with AMY-1 as a bait using a human testis cDNA library, and a clone encoding a novel protein, AMAP-1, was obtained. The amap-1 gene was mapped at human chromosome 17q21. AMY-1 was found to bind to and be colocalized with AMAP-1 in human 293T and HeLa cells. AMAP-1 was found to be specifically expressed in the testis and expressed post-meiotically in the testis, as was AMY-1. These results suggest that both AMAP-1 and AMY-1 play roles in spermatogenesis. (+info)
AAT-1, a novel testis-specific AMY-1-binding protein, forms a quaternary complex with AMY-1, A-kinase anchor protein 84, and a regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and is phosphorylated by its kinase.
AMY-1 has been identified by us as a c-Myc-binding protein and was found to stimulate c-Myc transcription activity. AMY-1 was also found to be associated with protein kinase A anchor protein 84/149 (S-AKAP84/AKAP149) in the mitochondria in somatic cells and sperm, suggesting that it plays a role in spermatogenesis. To determine the molecular function of AMY-1, a two-hybrid screening of cDNAs encoding AMY-1-binding proteins was carried out with AMY-1 as a bait using a human testis cDNA library, and a clone encoding a novel protein, AAT-1, was obtained. Three isoforms of AAT-1, AAT-1alpha, -beta, and -gamma, were found to be derived from an alternative splicing of the transcripts of the aat-1 gene, which was mapped at human chromosome 3q13-3q21. AAT-1 was found to be specifically expressed in the testis during the course of spermatogenesis and also to be present in the spermatid and mature sperm, as was AMY-1. AAT-1alpha was found to bind to and be colocalized in mitochondria with AMY-1 in human HeLa and mouse GC-1 cells. Furthermore, AAT-1alpha was found to bind to the N-terminal half of S-AKAP84/AKAP149 in a quaternary complex with AMY-1 and a regulatory subunit (RII) of cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA), in which AAT-1alpha was associated with RII via S-AKAP84/AKAP149, in rat testis and HeLa cells. It was then found that AAT-1alpha weakly stimulated a phosphorylation activity of PKA and also that AAT-1 itself was phosphorylated by PKA in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that both AAT-1 and AMY-1 play roles in spermatogenesis. (+info)
Ovol1 regulates the growth arrest of embryonic epidermal progenitor cells and represses c-myc transcription.
Transcriptional control plays a key role in regulating epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Although ample information has been obtained on how epidermal homeostasis is controlled in adult skin, less is known about the control of proliferation/differentiation of epidermal stem/progenitor cells in the developing embryo. Ovol1, encoding a zinc finger protein homologous to Drosophila melanogaster Ovo, is expressed in embryonic epidermal progenitor cells that are transiting from proliferation to terminal differentiation. In this study, we demonstrate a function for Ovol1 in interfollicular epidermal development. In its absence, developing epidermis fails to properly restrict the proliferative potential of progenitor cells, and cultured keratinocytes fail to efficiently undergo growth arrest in response to extrinsic growth-inhibitory signals. We present molecular evidence that c-myc expression is up-regulated in Ovol1-deficient suprabasal cells and that Ovol1 represses c-myc transcription by directly binding to its promoter. Collectively, our findings indicate that Ovol1 is required for proliferation exit of committed epidermal progenitor cells and identify c-myc as an Ovol1 target. (+info)
KLF4 suppresses transformation of pre-B cells by ABL oncogenes.
Genes that are strongly repressed after B-cell activation are candidates for being inactivated, mutated, or repressed in B-cell malignancies. Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), a gene down-regulated in activated murine B cells, is expressed at low levels in several types of human B-cell lineage lymphomas and leukemias. The human KLF4 gene has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in colon and gastric cancer; in concordance with this, overexpression of KLF4 can suppress proliferation in several epithelial cell types. Here we investigate the effects of KLF4 on pro/pre-B-cell transformation by v-Abl and BCR-ABL, oncogenes that cause leukemia in mice and humans. We show that overexpression of KLF4 induces arrest and apoptosis in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. KLF4-mediated death, but not cell-cycle arrest, can be rescued by Bcl-XL overexpression. Transformed pro/pre-B cells expressing KLF4 display increased expression of p21CIP and decreased expression of c-Myc and cyclin D2. Tetracycline-inducible expression of KLF4 in B-cell progenitors of transgenic mice blocks transformation by BCR-ABL and depletes leukemic pre-B cells in vivo. Collectively, our work identifies KLF4 as a putative tumor suppressor in B-cell malignancies. (+info)
Protein buffering in model systems and in whole human saliva.
The aim of this study was to quantify the buffer attributes (value, power, range and optimum) of two model systems for whole human resting saliva, the purified proteins from whole human resting saliva and single proteins. Two model systems, the first containing amyloglucosidase and lysozyme, and the second containing amyloglucosidase and alpha-amylase, were shown to provide, in combination with hydrogencarbonate and di-hydrogenphosphate, almost identical buffer attributes as whole human resting saliva. It was further demonstrated that changes in the protein concentration as small as 0.1% may change the buffer value of a buffer solution up to 15 times. Additionally, it was shown that there was a protein concentration change in the same range (0.16%) between saliva samples collected at the time periods of 13:00 and others collected at 9:00 am and 17:00. The mode of the protein expression changed between these samples corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the change of the buffer value at pH 6.7. Finally, SDS Page and Ruthenium II tris (bathophenantroline disulfonate) staining unveiled a constant protein expression in all samples except for one 50 kDa protein band. As the change in the expression pattern of that 50 kDa protein band corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the buffer value at pH 6.7, it was reasonable to conclude that this 50 kDa protein band may contain the protein(s) belonging to the protein buffer system of human saliva. (+info)
Multicenter study of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity reveals the importance of biological endpoints in genomic analyses.
Gene expression profiling is a widely used technique with data from the majority of published microarray studies being publicly available. These data are being used for meta-analyses and in silico discovery; however, the comparability of toxicogenomic data generated in multiple laboratories has not been critically evaluated. Using the power of prospective multilaboratory investigations, seven centers individually conducted a common toxicogenomics experiment designed to advance understanding of molecular pathways perturbed in liver by an acute toxic dose of N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP) and to uncover reproducible genomic signatures of APAP-induced toxicity. The nonhepatotoxic APAP isomer N-acetyl-m-aminophenol was used to identify gene expression changes unique to APAP. Our data show that c-Myc is induced by APAP and that c-Myc-centered interactomes are the most significant networks of proteins associated with liver injury. Furthermore, sources of error and data variability among Centers and methods to accommodate this variability were identified by coupling gene expression with extensive toxicological evaluation of the toxic responses. We show that phenotypic anchoring of gene expression data is required for biologically meaningful analysis of toxicogenomic experiments. (+info)
Probing the role of aromatic residues at the secondary saccharide-binding sites of human salivary alpha-amylase in substrate hydrolysis and bacterial binding.