(1/659) Low oxygen inhibits but complex high-glucose medium facilitates in vitro maturation of squirrel monkey oocyte-granulosa cell complexes.

PURPOSE: The objectives of these in vitro maturation studies in primate cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were to evaluate the effect of a reduced-oxygen environment and to compare medium with a high-glucose concentration to medium with pyruvate but no glucose. METHODS: COCs were retrieved from squirrel monkeys stimulated with 1 mg of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) for 4-6 days. Experiment 1 examined maturation after 48 hr in 5% O2/5% CO2/90% N2 compared with 5% CO2/air. The medium was CMRL-1066 containing moderate glucose (5.5 mM) supplemented with 1 mM glutamine, 0.33 mM pyruvate, 0.075 IU/ml human FSH, 5 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotropin, 75 U penicillin G/ml, and 20% fetal bovine serum. Experiment 2 in 5% CO2/air, compared P-1 medium (pyruvate and lactate but no glucose) to Waymouth's medium (27.5 mM glucose), both with identical supplements. RESULTS: Only 3 (8%) of 37 COCs matured in 5% O2, while 39 (49%) of 80 matured in ambient O2. Fourteen (22%) of 64 complexes matured in P-1 medium, compared to 47 (49%) of 96 meiosis II oocytes in Waymouth's medium (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These are the first primate studies showing detrimental effects of reduced-oxygen culture on in vitro maturation. Additionally, maturation was enhanced with complex high-glucose medium suggesting that the predominant metabolism is aerobic glycolysis.  (+info)

(2/659) Endogenous thermoregulatory rhythms of squirrel monkeys in thermoneutrality and cold.

Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine if the free-running circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb) results from coordinated changes in HP and HL rhythms in thermoneutrality (27 degrees C) as well as mild cold (17 degrees C). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of Tb and activity. Feeding was also measured. Rhythms of HP, HL, and conductance were tightly coupled with the circadian Tb rhythm at both ambient temperatures (TA). At 17 degrees C, increased HP compensated for higher HL at all phases of the Tb rhythm, resulting in only minor changes to Tb. Parallel compensatory changes of HP and HL were seen at all rhythm phases at both TA. Similar time courses of Tb, HP, and HL in their respective rhythms and the relative stability of Tb during both active and rest periods suggest action of the circadian timing system on Tb set point.  (+info)

(3/659) Trigeminal nerve and brainstem catecholamine systems in cerebral vasospasm.

Cisternal blood injection in the rat and squirrel monkey produces a biphasic cerebral vasospasm, a decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and an increase in glucose uptake (CMRglu) due to an anaerobic glucolysis actually representing a decrease in metabolism. Lesioning of the A2-nucleus, its ascending cathecolamine pathways or their projection site, the median eminence in the hypothalamus, prevents the occurrence of spasm. A unilateral postganglionic trigeminal lesion causes an ipsilateral constriction of the cerebral arteries while a preganglionic lesion does not affect the baseline arterial diameter. Both kinds of trigeminal lesions induce a global increase in glucose uptake of about 50% without influencing CBF. Following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) the decrease in CBF in both groups of lesioned animals is similar to that seen in controls. After SAH there is no further change in CMRglu in the animals with a preganglionic lesion, while in the postganglionically lesioned animals there is an additional increase in CMRglu of about 50% as compared to controls or animals with a preganglionic lesion. Treatment with the peptidergic substance P (SP) antagonist, spantide, or gammaglobulin against SP prevents or significantly reduces the degree of spasm and the changes in flow and metabolism normally seen post-SAH. The non-peptidergic neurokinins NK1 and NK3 antagonists do not influence flow and metabolism in SAH animals. The NK2 seems to change both flow and metabolism post-SAH in rats.  (+info)

(4/659) Effects of viewing distance on the responses of horizontal canal-related secondary vestibular neurons during angular head rotation.

Effects of viewing distance on the responses of horizontal canal-related secondary vestibular neurons during angular head rotation. The eye movements generated by the horizontal canal-related angular vestibuloocular reflex (AVOR) depend on the distance of the image from the head and the axis of head rotation. The effects of viewing distance on the responses of 105 horizontal canal-related central vestibular neurons were examined in two squirrel monkeys that were trained to fixate small, earth-stationary targets at different distances (10 and 150 cm) from their eyes. The majority of these cells (77/105) were identified as secondary vestibular neurons by synaptic activation following electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve. All of the viewing distance-sensitive units were also sensitive to eye movements in the absence of head movements. Some classes of eye movement-related vestibular units were more sensitive to viewing distance than others. For example, the average increase in rotational gain (discharge rate/head velocity) of position-vestibular-pause units was 20%, whereas the gain increase of eye-head-velocity units was 44%. The concomitant change in gain of the AVOR was 11%. Near viewing responses of units phase lagged the responses they generated during far target viewing by 6-25 degrees. A similar phase lag was not observed in either the near AVOR eye movements or in the firing behavior of burst-position units in the vestibular nuclei whose firing behavior was only related to eye movements. The viewing distance-related increase in the evoked eye movements and in the rotational gain of all unit classes declined progressively as stimulus frequency increased from 0.7 to 4.0 Hz. When monkeys canceled their VOR by fixating head-stationary targets, the responses recorded during near and far target viewing were comparable. However, the viewing distance-related response changes exhibited by central units were not directly attributable to the eye movement signals they generated. Subtraction of static eye position signals reduced, but did not abolish viewing distance gain changes in most units. Smooth pursuit eye velocity sensitivity and viewing distance sensitivity were not well correlated. We conclude that the central premotor pathways that mediate the AVOR also mediate viewing distance-related changes in the reflex. Because irregular vestibular nerve afferents are necessary for viewing distance-related gain changes in the AVOR, we suggest that a central estimate of viewing distance is used to parametrically modify vestibular afferent inputs to secondary vestibuloocular reflex pathways.  (+info)

(5/659) Effects of viewing distance on the responses of vestibular neurons to combined angular and linear vestibular stimulation.

Effects of viewing distance on the responses of vestibular neurons to combined angular and linear vestibular stimulation. The firing behavior of 59 horizontal canal-related secondary vestibular neurons was studied in alert squirrel monkeys during the combined angular and linear vestibuloocular reflex (CVOR). The CVOR was evoked by positioning the animal's head 20 cm in front of, or behind, the axis of rotation during whole body rotation (0.7, 1.9, and 4.0 Hz). The effect of viewing distance was studied by having the monkeys fixate small targets that were either near (10 cm) or far (1.3-1.7 m) from the eyes. Most units (50/59) were sensitive to eye movements and were monosynaptically activated after electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve (51/56 tested). The responses of eye movement-related units were significantly affected by viewing distance. The viewing distance-related change in response gain of many eye-head-velocity and burst-position units was comparable with the change in eye movement gain. On the other hand, position-vestibular-pause units were approximately half as sensitive to changes in viewing distance as were eye movements. The sensitivity of units to the linear vestibuloocular reflex (LVOR) was estimated by subtraction of angular vestibuloocular reflex (AVOR)-related responses recorded with the head in the center of the axis of rotation from CVOR responses. During far target viewing, unit sensitivity to linear translation was small, but during near target viewing the firing rate of many units was strongly modulated. The LVOR responses and viewing distance-related LVOR responses of most units were nearly in phase with linear head velocity. The signals generated by secondary vestibular units during voluntary cancellation of the AVOR and CVOR were comparable. However, unit sensitivity to linear translation and angular rotation were not well correlated either during far or near target viewing. Unit LVOR responses were also not well correlated with their sensitivity to smooth pursuit eye movements or their sensitivity to viewing distance during the AVOR. On the other hand there was a significant correlation between static eye position sensitivity and sensitivity to viewing distance. We conclude that secondary horizontal canal-related vestibuloocular pathways are an important part of the premotor neural substrate that produces the LVOR. The otolith sensory signals that appear on these pathways have been spatially and temporally transformed to match the angular eye movement commands required to stabilize images at different distances. We suggest that this transformation may be performed by the circuits related to temporal integration of the LVOR.  (+info)

(6/659) Representational plasticity in cortical area 3b paralleling tactual-motor skill acquisition in adult monkeys.

The representations of the surfaces of the hand in the primary somatosensory cortical field, area 3b, were reconstructed in detail in seven owl monkeys and two squirrel monkeys trained to pick up food pellets from five wells of different sizes. From an early clumsy performance in which several to many retrieval attempts were required for each successful pellet retrieval, the monkeys exhibited a gradual improvement in digital dexterity as shown by significant decreases in mean numbers of grasp attempts/successful retrieval and corresponding standard deviations (e.g. 5.8 +/- 4.5 and 4.8 +/- 3.1 respectively, for the smallest well) between the first and last training sessions. All monkeys commonly used alternative, specific retrieval strategies involving various combinations of digits for significant time epochs before developing a highly successful strategy, which, once achieved, was rapidly stereotyped. For example, the numbers of digit combinations used during the first five versus the last five training sessions decreased from 3.3 +/- 0.7 to 1.8 +/- 0.6 for the smallest well. In both owl and squirrel monkeys, as the behavior came to be stereotyped, monkeys reliably engaged limited surfaces of the glabrous tips of two digits (in eight monkeys), or of three digits (in one monkey) in the palpation and manipulation of these small pellets for their location, capture, and transportation to the mouth. In cortical area 3b, the magnification of representation of these differentially engaged glabrous fingertip surfaces was nearly 2x larger than for the corresponding surfaces of other hand digits, or for the contralateral cortical representations of the same digit surfaces on the opposite hand. In parallel, cutaneous receptive field for area 3b neurons representing crucial digital tip surfaces were less than half as large as were those representing the corresponding surfaces of control digits. Receptive field overlaps were smaller on the trained fingertips than on control fingers. Moreover, the proportion of small overlaps was greater for the trained digits (76 +/- 7%) than for the other digits of the same hand (49 +/- 5.4%). There was still a simple, single--but apparently topologically expanded--representation of these differentially engaged skin surfaces in these monkeys. Thus, with very limited manual exercise over a total period of a few hours of practice at a skill played out in brief daily sessions over a several week long training period, the representations of skin surfaces providing information crucial for successfully performing a small-object retrieval behavior appeared to be substantially remodeled in the most 'primary' of the SI somatosensory cortical fields, cortical area 3b. By that remodeling, behaviorally important skin surfaces were represented in a much finer representational grain than normal. Some implications of these findings for motor skill acquisition are discussed.  (+info)

(7/659) Altered serotonin innervation patterns in the forebrain of monkeys treated with (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine seven years previously: factors influencing abnormal recovery.

The recreational drug (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is a potent and selective brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin in animals and, possibly, in humans. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether brain 5-HT deficits persist in squirrel monkeys beyond the 18-month period studied previously and to identify factors that influence recovery of injured 5-HT axons. Seven years after treatment, abnormal brain 5-HT innervation patterns were still evident in MDMA-treated monkeys, although 5-HT deficits in some regions were less severe than those observed at 18 months. No loss of 5-HT nerve cell bodies in the rostral raphe nuclei was found, indicating that abnormal innervation patterns in MDMA-treated monkeys are not the result of loss of a particular 5-HT nerve cell group. Factors that influence recovery of 5-HT axons after MDMA injury are (1) the distance of the affected axon terminal field from the rostral raphe nuclei, (2) the degree of initial 5-HT axonal injury, and possibly (3) the proximity of damaged 5-HT axons to myelinated fiber tracts. Additional studies are needed to better understand these and other factors that influence the response of primate 5-HT neurons to MDMA injury and to determine whether the present findings generalize to humans who use MDMA for recreational purposes.  (+info)

(8/659) Contribution of the cerebellar flocculus to gaze control during active head movements.

The flocculus and ventral paraflocculus are adjacent regions of the cerebellar cortex that are essential for controlling smooth pursuit eye movements and for altering the performance of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The question addressed in this study is whether these regions of the cerebellum are more globally involved in controlling gaze, regardless of whether eye or active head movements are used to pursue moving visual targets. Single-unit recordings were obtained from Purkinje (Pk) cells in the floccular region of squirrel monkeys that were trained to fixate and pursue small visual targets. Cell firing rate was recorded during smooth pursuit eye movements, cancellation of the VOR, combined eye-head pursuit, and spontaneous gaze shifts in the absence of targets. Pk cells were found to be much less sensitive to gaze velocity during combined eye-head pursuit than during ocular pursuit. They were not sensitive to gaze or head velocity during gaze saccades. Temporary inactivation of the floccular region by muscimol injection compromised ocular pursuit but had little effect on the ability of monkeys to pursue visual targets with head movements or to cancel the VOR during active head movements. Thus the signals produced by Pk cells in the floccular region are necessary for controlling smooth pursuit eye movements but not for coordinating gaze during active head movements. The results imply that individual functional modules in the cerebellar cortex are less involved in the global organization and coordination of movements than with parametric control of movements produced by a specific part of the body.  (+info)