Transformation of acridone synthase to chalcone synthase.
Acridone synthase (ACS) and chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyse the pivotal reactions in the formation of acridone alkaloids or flavonoids. While acridone alkaloids are confined almost exclusively to the Rutaceae, flavonoids occur abundantly in all seed-bearing plants. ACSs and CHSs had been cloned from Ruta graveolens and shown to be closely related polyketide synthases which use N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and 4-coumaroyl-CoA, respectively, as the starter substrate to produce the acridone or naringenin chalcone. As proposed for the related 2-pyrone synthase from Gerbera, the differential substrate specificities of ACS and CHS might be attributed to the relative volume of the active site cavities. The primary sequences as well as the immunological cross reactivities and molecular modeling studies suggested an almost identical spatial structure for ACS and CHS. Based on the Ruta ACS2 model the residues Ser132, Ala133 and Val265 were assumed to play a critical role in substrate specificity. Exchange of a single amino acid (Val265Phe) reduced the catalytic activity by about 75% but grossly shifted the specificity towards CHS activity, and site-directed mutagenesis replacing all three residues by the corresponding amino acids present in CHS (Ser132Thr, Ala133Ser and Val265Phe) fully transformed the enzyme to a functional CHS with comparatively marginal ACS activity. The results suggested that ACS divergently has evolved from CHS by very few amino acid exchanges, and it remains to be established why this route of functional diversity has developed in the Rutaceae only. (+info)
Isolation and structure elucidation of a new prenylcoumarin from Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa (Rutaceae).
A new C-8 prenylated 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin named omphamurrayin was isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa, and its structure was established as 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(1-oxo-2-senecioyl-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one on the basis of the spectroscopic evidence. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. omphalocarpa is briefly discussed, along with its synonymity to M. paniculata from the chemosystematic viewpoint. (+info)
Patavine, a new arylnaphthalene lignan glycoside from shoot cultures of Haplophyllum patavinum.
A new arylnaphthalene lignan glycoside, patavine (1), together with five known lignans, justicidin B (2), diphyllin (3), tuberculatin (4), majidine (5), and arabelline (6) were isolated from shoot cultures of Haplophyllum patavinum. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1, and 3-6 against LoVo human colon carcinoma cells was investigated. (+info)
Biotransformation of a dibenzylbutanolide to podophyllotoxin analogues by shoot cultures of Haplophyllum patavinum.
A peroxidase from spent medium of shoot cultures from Haplophyllum patavinum (L.) G. Don catalyzes the biotransformation of a synthetic dibenzybutanolide into a podophyllotoxin analogue and a novel compound, derived by the opening of the lactone ring. (+info)
Synthesis and cytotoxic and antitumor activity of 1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrobenzo[b]acronycine diacid hemiesters and carbamates.
A series of cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrobenzo[b]acronycine diacid hemiesters and dicarbamates were prepared by acylation of cis-1,2-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3,3,14-trimethyl-1,2,3,14-tetrahydro-7H-benzo[b]pyran o[3,2-h]acridin-7-one. The cytotoxicity of the dicarbamates depended on the steric hindrance of the esterifying groups at positions 1 and 2. Diacid hemiesters displayed significant in vitro cytotoxic activities and induced cell cycle perturbations similar to those obtained with cis-1,2-diacetoxy-1,2-dihydrobenzo[b]acronycine (S23906-1) currently under preclinical development. cis-1-Acetoxy-2-hemiglutaryloxy-1,2-dihydrobenzo[b]acronycine was the most promizing compound of the series, inducing complete inhibition of tumor growth when tested against C38 colon adenocarcinoma implanted in mice. (+info)
Two new dimeric acridone alkaloids from Glycosmis citrifolia.
Two new acridone dimers, glycobismines-F (1) and -G (2), were isolated from the roots of Glycosmis citrifolia collected in Taiwan. The structures of the new compounds were determined based on spectral analysis. (+info)
Laboratory evaluation of methanolic extract of Atlantia monophylla (Family: Rutaceae) against immature stages of mosquitoes and non-target organisms.
Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Atlantia monophylla (Rutaceae) were evaluated for mosquitocidal activity against immature stages of three mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and pupae of An. stephensi were found more susceptible, with LC50 values of 0.14 mg/l and 0.05 mg/l, respectively. Insect growth regulating activity of this extract was more pronounced against Ae. aegypti, with EI50 value 0.002 mg/l. The extract was found safe to aquatic mosquito predators Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, and Diplonychus indicus, with the respective LC50 values of 23.4, 21.3, and 5.7 mg/l. The results indicate that the mosquitocidal effects of the extract of this plant were comparable to neem extract and certain synthetic chemical larvicides like fenthion, methoprene, etc. (+info)
A new species of Haplophyllum A. Juss. (Rutaceae) from the Iberian Peninsula: evidence from morphological, karyological and molecular analyses.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The discovery of a new species, Haplophyllum bastetanum F.B. Navarro, V.N. Suarez-Santiago & Blanca sp. nov., in the south-east of Spain has prompted the comparative study of species of the Iberian Peninsula, and others related, through morphological, cytogenetic, molecular, distributional and ecological characterization. METHODS: The morphological study involved a quantitative analysis of the species present in the Iberian Peninsula and a comparative analysis of the morphological characteristics between H. bastetanum and other related species. Mitotic analyses were made with root meristems taken from germinating seeds. Phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA were performed using neighbour-joining (NJ) and maximum-parsimony methods. KEY RESULTS: Haplophyllum bastetanum is a diploid species (2n = 18) distinguished primarily for its non-trifoliate glabrous leaves, lanceolate sepals, dark-green petals with a dorsal band of hairs, and a highly hairy ovary with round-apex locules. The other two Iberian species (H. linifolium and H. rosmarinifolium) are tetraploid (2n = 36) and have yellow petals. Both phylogenetic methods generated a well-supported clade grouping H. linifolium with H. rosmarinifolium. In the NJ tree, the H. linifolium-H. rosmarinifolium clade is a sister group to H. bastetanum, while in the parsimony analysis this occurred only when the gaps were coded as a fifth base and the characters were reweighted according to the rescaled consistency index. This latter group is supported by the sequence divergence among taxa. CONCLUSIONS: The phylogenies established from DNA sequences together with morphological and cytogenetic analyses support the separation of H. bastetanum as a new species. The results suggest that the change in the number of chromosomes may be the key mechanism of speciation of the genus Haplophyllum in the Iberian Peninsula. An evolutionary scheme for them is propounded. (+info)