Two cases of rubella are described which caused initial problems in laboratory diagnosis due to abnormal features in the immune response. One patient presented with thrombocytopenic purpura and associated circulating immune complexes. The other patient, who was in early pregnancy, had an unusually prolonged rash and a delayed humoral immune response. The possible reasons for the difficulties in serological confirmation are discussed. (+info)
Staphylococcal protein A; its preparation and an application to rubella serology.
Good yields of staphylococcal protein A are obtained by growing the staphylococcus Cowan type 1 on cellophane agar. The activity of these preparations in removing immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human serum can be readily measured by the Mancini radial-diffusion technique and the correct in-use dilution determined. Treatment with protein A of sera from women with a history of rubella may help in the identification of those having specific antibody in the IgM and IgA fractions. This relatively simple procedure may have worthwhile application in the diagnosis of rubella. (+info)
A model-based evaluation of the national immunization programme against rubella infection and congenital rubella syndrome in The Netherlands.
In order to improve the prevention of cases of congenital rubella syndrome in The Netherlands, in 1987 the selective vaccination strategy against rubella infection in girls was replaced by mass vaccination. This decision was supported by mathematical model analyses carried out by Van Druten and De Boo. In order to compare the predicted impact of the rubella vaccination programme with the current available data in more detail, a similar model was built. Although the model predicts elimination of the rubella virus, data show that virus circulation is still present at a higher level than expected by the model. Simulation studies indicate that import of infection and a lower vaccine effectiveness, related to possible asymptomatic reinfection of vaccinated people, could be sources contributing to the present virus circulation. Even though the number of infections is much higher than the number of reported cases of disease, limited serosurveillance data and case notification data show that females of childbearing age are well protected by immunization. (+info)
Rubella immunisation and contraception--a case for re-examining the policy of the Department of Health and Social Security.
Now that immunisation against rubella is available, it would at first sight seem reasonable to identify all potential mothers susceptible to this disease and immunise them. Preliminary screening, however, carried out in order to restrict vaccination to seronegative subjects, not only serves no useful purpose, but is counter-productive. (+info)
Candidate viral diseases for elimination or eradication.
This article discusses the possibilities for elimination or eradication of four viral diseases--measles, hepatitis B, rubella and yellow fever. (+info)
A modified rubella HI test using prestandardized reagents.
A modified haemagglutination inhibition test for rubella antibodies using prestandardized freeze-dried reagents was compared to a "standard" method. Tests of 707 serum samples showed that the modified test was sensitive and reliable by both macrotitration and microtitration techniques. The minor disadvantages of some reduction in antibody level when rubella sera were tested within one week of the rash and of spontaneous sheep erythrocyte agglutination in 0-7% of sera were out-weighed by the increased speed of the new test and the fact that it was carried out at room temperature. (+info)
The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.
PURPOSE: To study the spectrum of adverse ocular effects which result from maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasma infection; further, to record the long-term visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these 2 major causes of fetal infection. STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A series of 55 patients with congenital infection have been studied prospectively on a long-term basis. The study group included a cohort of 34 cases with congenital rubella syndrome demonstrated by virus isolation, and 21 cases with a clinical diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and serologic confirmation. All patients had specific disease-related ocular defects. Rubella patients were first identified during or following the last major rubella epidemic in 1963-1964, and some have been followed serially since that time. A separate study group of representative toxoplasmosis patients presented for examination and diagnosis at varying time periods between 1967 and 1991. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: This study confirms that a broad spectrum of fetal injury may result from intrauterine infection and that both persistent and delayed-onset effects may continue or occur as late as 30 years after original infection. Many factors contribute to the varied outcome of prenatal infection, the 2 most important being the presence of maternal immunity during early gestation and the stage of gestation during which fetal exposure occurs in a nonimmune mother. RUBELLA: As a criteria of inclusion, all 34 rubella patients in this study exhibited one or more ocular defects at the time of birth or in the immediate neonatal period. Cataracts were present in 29 (85%) of the 34, of which 21 (63%) were bilateral. Microphthalmia, the next most frequent defect, was present in 28 (82%) of the 34 infants and was bilateral in 22 (65%). Glaucoma was recorded in 11 cases (29%) and presented either as a transient occurrence with early cloudy cornea in microphthalmic eyes (4 patients), as the infantile type with progressive buphthalmos (1 patient), or as a later-onset, aphakic glaucoma many months or years following cataract aspiration in 11 eyes of 6 patients. Rubella retinopathy was present in the majority of patients, although an accurate estimate of its incidence or laterality was not possible because of the frequency of cataracts and nystagmus and the difficulty in obtaining adequate fundus examination. TOXOPLASMOSIS: Twenty-one patients with congenital toxoplasmosis have been examined and followed for varying time periods, 7 for 20 years or more. The major reason for initial examination was parental awareness of an ocular deviation. Twelve children (57%) presented between the ages of 3 months and 4 years with an initial diagnosis of strabismus, 9 of whom had minor complaints or were diagnosed as part of routine examinations. All cases in this study have had evidence of retinochoroiditis, the primary ocular pathology of congenital toxoplasmosis. Two patients had chronic and recurrent inflammation with progressive vitreal traction bands, retinal detachments, and bilateral blindness. Macular lesions were always associated with central vision loss; however, over a period of years visual acuity gradually improved in several patients. Individuals with more severe ocular involvement were also afflicted with the most extensive central nervous system deficits, which occurred following exposure during the earliest weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Although congenital infection due to rubella virus has been almost completely eradicated in the United States, the long-term survivors from the prevaccination period continue to experience major complications from their early ocular and cerebral defects. They may be afflicted by the persistence of virus in their affected organs and the development of late manifestations of their congenital infection. Congenital toxoplasmosis continues to be the source of major defects for 3,000 to 4,100 infants in the United States each year; the spectrum of defects is wide and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of little consequence. Effective solutions for either the prevention or treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis have not been developed in this country but are under intensive and continuing investigation. (+info)
Involvement of a p53-dependent pathway in rubella virus-induced apoptosis.
In light of the important role of apoptotic cell death in the pathogenesis of several viral infections, we asked whether the cytopathogenicity evoked by rubella virus (RV) might also involve apoptotic mechanisms. The To-336 strain of RV induced apoptosis in Vero and RK-13 cells, but not in fibroblast cell lines. UV-inactivated RV virions did not elicit the apoptotic response, indicating that productive infection is required for the induction of cell death. Both p53 and p21 protein levels were highly elevated in RV-infected Vero cells. The level of p21 mRNA was increased, while expression of the p53 gene was unaffected by RV infection. A dominant-negative p53 mutant (p53(W248)) conferred partial protection from RV-induced apoptosis. These data implicate a p53-dependent apoptotic pathway in the cytopathogenicity of RV, thereby suggesting a mechanism by which RV exerts its teratogenic effects. (+info)