Aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis in Roseobacter clade bacteria from diverse marine habitats.
The marine Roseobacter clade comprises several genera of marine bacteria related to the uncultured SAR83 cluster, the second most abundant marine picoplankton lineage. Cultivated representatives of this clade are physiologically heterogeneous, and only some have the capability for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, a process of potentially great ecological importance in the world's oceans. In an attempt to correlate phylogeny with ecology, we investigated the diversity of Roseobacter clade strains from various marine habitats (water samples, biofilms, laminariae, diatoms, and dinoflagellate cultures) by using the 16S rRNA gene as a phylogenetic marker gene. The potential for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis was determined on the genetic level by PCR amplification and sequencing of the pufLM genes of the bacterial photosynthesis reaction center and on the physiological level by detection of bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) a. A collection of ca. 1,000 marine isolates was screened for members of the marine Roseobacter clade by 16S rRNA gene-directed multiplex PCR and sequencing. The 42 Roseobacter clade isolates found tended to form habitat-specific subclusters. The pufLM genes were detected in two groups of strains from dinoflagellate cultures but in none of the other Roseobacter clade isolates. Strains within the first group (the DFL-12 cluster) also synthesized Bchl a. Strains within the second group (the DFL-35 cluster) formed a new species of Roseovarius and did not produce Bchl a under the conditions investigated here, thus demonstrating the importance of genetic methods for screening of cultivation-dependent metabolic traits. The pufL genes of the dinoflagellate isolates were phylogenetically closely related to pufL genes from Betaproteobacteria, confirming similar previous observations which have been interpreted as indications of gene transfer events. (+info)
Diverse organization of genes of the beta-ketoadipate pathway in members of the marine Roseobacter lineage.
Members of the Roseobacter lineage, an ecologically important marine clade within the class alpha-Proteobacteria, harbor genes for the protocatechuate branch of the beta-ketoadipate pathway, a major catabolic route for lignin-related aromatic compounds. The genes of this pathway are typically clustered, although gene order varies among organisms. Here we characterize genes linked to pcaH and -G, which encode protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, in eight closely related members of the Roseobacter lineage (pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence identities, 92 to 99%). Sequence analysis of genomic fragments revealed five unique pca gene arrangements. Identical gene organization was found for isolates demonstrating species-level identity (i.e., >99% 16S rRNA gene similarity). In one isolate, six functionally related genes were clustered: pcaQ, pobA, pcaD, pcaC, pcaH, and pcaG. The remaining seven isolates lacked at least one of these genes in their clusters, although the relative order of the remaining genes was preserved. Three genes (pcaC, -H, and -G) were physically linked in all isolates. A highly conserved open reading frame (ORF) was found immediately downstream of pcaG in all eight isolates. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of RNA from one isolate, Silicibacter pomeroyi DSS-3, provides evidence that this ORF is coexpressed with upstream pca genes. The absence of this ORF in similar bacterial pca gene clusters from diverse microbes suggests a niche-specific role for its protein product in Roseobacter group members. Collectively, these comparisons of bacterial pca gene organization illuminate a complex evolutionary history and underscore the widespread ecological importance of the encoded beta-ketoadipate pathway. (+info)
Antibiotic production by a Roseobacter clade-affiliated species from the German Wadden Sea and its antagonistic effects on indigenous isolates.
A strain affiliated with the Roseobacter clade and producing a new antibiotic named tropodithietic acid (L. Liang, Ph.D. thesis, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany, 2003) was isolated from the German Wadden Sea. The compound showed strong inhibiting properties with respect to marine bacteria of various taxa and marine algae. Antibiotic production was found to occur during the complete growth phase. Strain mutants without antagonistic properties appeared several times spontaneously. (+info)
Structural characterization of a binuclear center of a Cu-containing NO reductase homologue from Roseobacter denitrificans: EPR and resonance Raman studies.
Aerobic phototrophic bacterium Roseobacter denitrificans has a nitric oxide reductase (NOR) homologue with cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) activity. It is composed of two subunits that are homologous with NorC and NorB, and contains heme c, heme b, and copper in a 1:2:1 stoichiometry. This enzyme has virtually no NOR activity. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the air-oxidized enzyme showed signals of two low-spin hemes at 15 K. The high-spin heme species having relatively low signal intensity indicated that major part of heme b3 is EPR-silent due to an antiferromagnetic coupling to an adjacent CuB forming a Fe-Cu binuclear center. Resonance Raman (RR) spectrum of the oxidized enzyme suggested that heme b3 is six-coordinate high-spin species and the other hemes are six-coordinate low-spin species. The RR spectrum of the reduced enzyme showed that all the ferrous hemes are six-coordinate low-spin species. Nu(Fe-CO) and nu(C-O) stretching modes were observed at 523 and 1969 cm(-1), respectively, for CO-bound enzyme. In spite of the similarity to NOR in the primary structure, the frequency of nu(Fe-CO) mode is close to those of aa3- and bo3-type oxidases rather than that of NOR. (+info)
Genome organization and localization of the pufLM genes of the photosynthesis reaction center in phylogenetically diverse marine Alphaproteobacteria.
Genome organization, plasmid content and localization of the pufLM genes of the photosynthesis reaction center were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in marine phototrophic Alphaproteobacteria. Both anaerobic phototrophs (Rhodobacter veldkampii and Rhodobacter sphaeroides) and strictly aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs from the Roseobacter-Sulfitobacter-Silicibacter clade (Roseivivax halodurans, Roseobacter litoralis, Staleya guttiformis, Roseovarius tolerans, and five new strains isolated from dinoflagellate cultures) were investigated. The complete genome size was estimated for R. litoralis DSM6996(T) to be 4,704 kb, including three linear plasmids. All strains contained extrachromosomal elements of various conformations (linear or circular) and lengths (between 4.35 and 368 kb). In strain DFL-12, a member of a putative new genus isolated from a culture of the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima, seven linear plasmids were found, together comprising 860 kb of genetic information. Hybridization with probes against the pufLM genes of the photosynthesis gene cluster after Southern transfer of the genomic DNAs showed these genes to be located on a linear plasmid of 91 kb in R. litoralis and on a linear plasmid of 120 kb in S. guttiformis, theoretically allowing their horizontal transfer. In all other strains, the pufLM genes were detected on the bacterial chromosome. The large number and significant size of the linear plasmids found especially in isolates from dinoflagellates might account for the metabolic versatility and presumed symbiotic association with eukaryotic hosts in these bacteria. (+info)
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate metabolism by Pfiesteria-associated Roseobacter spp.
The Roseobacter clade of marine bacteria is often found associated with dinoflagellates, one of the major producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Roseobacter species have developed a physiological relationship with DMSP-producing dinoflagellates mediated by the metabolism of DMSP. DMSP was measured in Pfiesteria and Pfiesteria-like (Cryptoperidiniopsis) dinoflagellates, and the identities and metabolic potentials of the associated Roseobacter species to degrade DMSP were determined. Both Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria shumwayae produce DMSP with an average intracellular concentration of 3.8 microM. Cultures of P. piscicida or Cryptoperidiniopsis sp. that included both the dinoflagellates and their associated bacteria rapidly catabolized 200 microM DMSP (within 30 h), and the rate of catabolism was much higher for P. piscicida cultures than for P. shumwayae cultures. The community of bacteria from P. piscicida and Cryptoperidiniopsis cultures degraded DMSP with the production of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and acrylate, followed by 3-methylmercaptopropionate (MMPA) and methanethiol (MeSH). Four DMSP-degrading bacteria were isolated from the P. piscicida cultures and found to be taxonomically related to Roseobacter species. All four isolates produced MMPA from DMSP. Two of the strains also produced MeSH and DMS, indicating that they are capable of utilizing both the lyase and demethylation pathways. The diverse metabolism of DMSP by the dinoflagellate-associated Roseobacter spp. offers evidence consistent with a hypothesis that these bacteria benefit from association with DMSP-producing dinoflagellates. (+info)
Changes in bacterioplankton composition under different phytoplankton regimens.
The results of empirical studies have revealed links between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton, such as the frequent correlation between chlorophyll a and bulk bacterial abundance and production. Nevertheless, little is known about possible links at the level of specific taxonomic groups. To investigate this issue, seawater microcosm experiments were performed in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Turbulence was used as a noninvasive means to induce phytoplankton blooms dominated by different algae. Microcosms exposed to turbulence became dominated by diatoms, while small phytoflagellates gained importance under still conditions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that changes in phytoplankton community composition were followed by shifts in bacterioplankton community composition, both as changes in the presence or absence of distinct bacterial phylotypes and as differences in the relative abundance of ubiquitous phylotypes. Sequencing of DGGE bands showed that four Roseobacter phylotypes were present in all microcosms. The microcosms with a higher proportion of phytoflagellates were characterized by four phylotypes of the Bacteroidetes phylum: two affiliated with the family Cryomorphaceae and two with the family Flavobacteriaceae. Two other Flavobacteriaceae phylotypes were characteristic of the diatom-dominated microcosms, together with one Alphaproteobacteria phylotype (Roseobacter) and one Gammaproteobacteria phylotype (Methylophaga). Phylogenetic analyses of published Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that members of the Flavobacteriaceae are remarkably responsive to phytoplankton blooms, indicating these bacteria could be particularly important in the processing of organic matter during such events. Our data suggest that quantitative and qualitative differences in phytoplankton species composition may lead to pronounced differences in bacterioplankton species composition. (+info)
Seasonal incidence of autochthonous antagonistic Roseobacter spp. and Vibrionaceae strains in a turbot larva (Scophthalmus maximus) rearing system.
Bacteria inhibitory to fish larval pathogenic bacteria were isolated from two turbot larva rearing farms over a 1-year period. Samples were taken from the rearing site, e.g., tank walls, water, and feed for larvae, and bacteria with antagonistic activity against Vibrio anguillarum were isolated using a replica plating assay. Approximately 19,000 colonies were replica plated from marine agar plates, and 341 strains were isolated from colonies causing clearing zones in a layer of V. anguillarum. When tested in a well diffusion agar assay, 173 strains retained the antibacterial activity against V. anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus. Biochemical tests identified 132 strains as Roseobacter spp. and 31 as Vibrionaceae strains. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of three strains confirmed the identification as Roseobacter gallaeciensis. Roseobacter spp. were especially isolated in the spring and early summer months. Subtyping of the 132 Roseobacter spp. strains by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA with two primers revealed that the strains formed a very homogeneous group. Hence, it appears that the same subtype was present at both fish farms and persisted during the 1-year survey. This indicates either a common, regular source of the subtype or the possibility that a particular subtype has established itself in some areas of the fish farm. Thirty-one antagonists were identified as Vibrio spp., and 18 of these were V. anguillarum but not serotype O1 or O2. Roseobacter spp. strains were, in particular, isolated from the larval tank walls, and it may be possible to establish an antagonistic, beneficial microflora in the rearing environment of turbot larvae and thereby limit survival of pathogenic bacteria. (+info)