Reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis and necrosis in bovine corneal endothelial cells.
PURPOSE: The loss of corneal endothelial cells associated with aging and possibly other causes has been speculated to be related to exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The current study was conducted to investigate, by use of photosensitizers, the underlying mechanisms involved in the death of bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCENs) caused by ROS. METHODS: BCEN cells in primary culture were treated with a photosensitizer (riboflavin or rose bengal) with light exposure. The patterns of cell damage and death were assessed using an acridine orange-ethidium bromide differential staining method, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity was assayed by mitochondrial function using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) testing. Antioxidants, including catalase, L-histidine, salicylic acid, and superoxide dismutase, were used to determine the types of ROS involved. Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB was examined by fluorescent immunocytochemistry with anti-p65 antibody. RESULTS: Light-irradiated riboflavin or rose bengal resulted in a significant decrease in viability of BCEN cells. Chromosomal condensation and fragmentation were observed in apoptotic cells, and membrane lysis and damage of cell ultrastructures were observed in necrotic cells. Riboflavin induced apoptosis at 30 minutes and thereafter and induced necrosis after 2 hours. Rose bengal was shown to cause similar effects within half the time required for the effects of riboflavin. Catalase and salicylic acid were found to provide protection for BCENs from cytotoxic effects of riboflavin, and L-histidine was found to protect BCENs from cytotoxicity induced by rose bengal. Kinetic studies using immunocytochemistry showed that NF-kappaB was translocated into the nucleus within 15 minutes and 30 minutes after treatment with rose bengal and riboflavin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The cytotoxic effects of photo-irradiated riboflavin and rose bengal are shown to be mediated by two distinct but parallel pathways, one leading to apoptosis and the other to necrosis. Possible involvement of NF-kappaB in cell death is suggested. These findings provide potential leads for future investigation into the molecular mechanisms of loss of corneal endothelial cells related to aging, oxidative stress, and possibly other similar causes. (+info)
Neuroprotective action of dextromethorphan in rat photochemically-induced focal cerebral ischemia.
AIM: To study the effects of dextromethorphan (Dex) on photochemically-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats. METHODS: Anesthetized rats undergone 10-min light irradiation on exposed skull after rose bengal injection were pretreated with saline and Dex at 3 doses (12.5, 25, and 50 mg.kg-1, i.p., 15 min before ischemia). The alteration of volume of lesioned cortical region, regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), bcl-2 and bax expression at penumbra area were studied. RESULTS: Dex dose-dependently decreased the infarcted volume (17%, 26%, and 50% reduction, respectively). Pretreatment with Dex at a dose of 50 mg.kg-1 improved the postischemic hypoperfusion compared with the control at 20 and 30 min after lesion (both 31% increase), and also upregulated the expression of anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2. CONCLUSION: Dex protects against ischemic neuronal damage in this model and its effects on CBF and bcl-2 expression may contribute to its neuroprotective action. (+info)
A quantitative comparison of the sensitivity of serological test for bovine brucellosis to different antibody classes.
Brucella-specific antibodies of different immunoglobulin classes were quantitatively evaluated with respect to their efficiency in serological tests for bovine brucellosis. IgM reacted more efficiently than IgG1 and IgG2 in both the Rose Bengal plate test and serum agglutination test. The complement fixation test was found to be slightly more sensitive to IgM than to IgG1 and did not react to IgG2. IgM was, however, partly inactivated when heated at 60 degrees C. in the presence of serum. (+info)
Extrahepatic biliary atresia versus neonatal hepatitis. Review of 137 prospectively investigated infants.
In a prospective regional survey of neonatal hepatitis syndrome 32 infants had extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) and 103 had hepatitis. No cause for the lesion was found in infants with extrahepatic biliary atresia, but in 32 with hepatitis a specific cause was identified, 24 having genetic deficiency of the serum protein alpha1-antitrypsin. No differences were observed in parental age, mother's health in pregnancy, month of birth, birth order, or sex of the infants. Familial idiopathic hepatitis occurred in 3 of 67 sibs of patients with idiopathic hepatitis, but the 33 sibs of EHBA patients had no liver disease. Of the infants with hepatitis, 36 were of low birthweight, less than 2.5 kg, and 23 were born prematurely. Infants with biliary atresia were all of normal birthweight and only one was born prematurely. Consideration of clinical and biochemical abnormalities in the first 2 months of life showed no differences between the two groups except that infants with EHBA were more commonly jaundiced from birth (80%) and had more frequently acholic stools (83%). The frequency of these features in patients with hepatitis being 68% and 52%. Standard tests of liver function were not discriminatory. Percutaneous liver biopsies were diagnostic in 75% of those with EHBA and in 92% of those with hepatitis. The I131 Rose Bengal faecal excretion was less than 10% in 26 of 28 infants with EHBA and in only 5 of 18 with hepatitis. These latter two investigations together allowed a correct preoperativer diagnosis of EHBA in all instances. Bile drainage was achieved surgically in only 3 cases. A major reason for these poor results may have been the late referral of cases for diagnosis and laparotomy, which should be performed as soon as the diagnosis is suspected and always by 70 days of age. (+info)
PCR assessment of HSV-1 corneal infection in animals treated with rose bengal and lissamine green B.
PURPOSE: In vivo, the ophthalmic dye rose bengal displays profound antiviral effects against herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, thus limiting its utility in diagnosis of epithelial keratitis when used before viral culture is performed. In contrast, lissamine green B does not possess significant antiviral activity in vivo. To determine whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could successfully detect HSV-1 DNA in ocular samples that have been exposed to ophthalmic dyes, animal models were used to observe the presence of infectious HSV-1 and viral DNA in eyes treated with rose bengal or lissamine green B. METHODS: Animals were bilaterally infected with HSV-1 strain H129, and at daily intervals up to 16 days post infection (dpi) rose bengal or lissamine green B was instilled in the left eyes. The right eyes were not treated with dyes. Swabs of the dye-treated and untreated eyes were assayed by PCR for viral infectivity by culture and the presence of DNA specific for a fragment of the HSV-1 DNA polymerase gene. RESULTS: A statistically equivalent number of samples from lissamine green B-treated and untreated eyes were positive by both viral culture and PCR. In contrast, rose bengal significantly decreased the infectious virus present in ocular secretions. A total of 44% and 78% of the rose bengal-treated and untreated eye samples, respectively, were positive by culture from 1 through 16 dpi. PCR was more sensitive than culture for detection of HSV-1 in rose bengal-treated eyes, in that 74% of rose bengal-treated samples were positive by PCR compared with 44% that were positive by culture during the 16-day period studied. It was also noted that both rose bengal and lissamine green B treatments slightly prolonged the period during which viral DNA was detectable in ocular secretions by PCR, possibly because the singlet oxygen produced by these photoreactive dyes compromised ocular cellular, humoral, and nonspecific immune factors allowing viral DNA to persist for slightly longer periods. CONCLUSIONS: PCR can successfully detect HSV-1 DNA in ocular samples that are culture negative and contain rose bengal or lissamine green B. Visualization of ocular epithelial defects with lissamine green B does not interfere with detection of infectious virus or HSV-1 DNA. (+info)
Hyperlipidemia promotes thrombosis after injury to atherosclerotic vessels in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
The increased risk of hyperlipidemia on the development of complications of atherosclerosis is well established. Cholesterol-lowering therapies lead to a decrease in the incidence of vascular thrombotic events that is out of proportion to the reduction in plaque size. This suggests that the occurrence of acute thrombosis overlying a disrupted plaque is influenced by changes in lipid levels. The influence of acute hyperlipidemia on the development of thrombosis overlying an atherosclerotic plaque in vivo has not been extensively studied. We used a murine model of vascular injury induced by a photochemical reaction to elicit thrombus formation overlying an atherosclerotic plaque. Fifteen apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were maintained on normal chow until the age of 30 weeks. Five days before the induction of thrombosis, 6 mice were started on a high fat diet, and 9 mice were continued on normal chow. Mice then underwent photochemical injury to the common carotid artery immediately proximal to the carotid bifurcation, where an atherosclerotic plaque is consistently present. Mice maintained on normal chow developed occlusive thrombi, determined by cessation of blood flow, 44+/-5 minutes (mean+/-SEM) after photochemical injury, whereas mice fed a high fat chow developed occlusive thrombosis at 27+/-3 minutes (P<0.02). Histological analysis confirmed the presence of acute thrombus formation overlying an atherosclerotic plaque. These studies demonstrate a useful model for assessing the determinants of thrombosis in the setting of atherosclerosis and show that acute elevations in plasma cholesterol facilitate thrombus formation at sites of atherosclerosis after vascular injury. (+info)
Transient ischemic injury in the rat retina caused by thrombotic occlusion-thrombolytic reperfusion.
PURPOSE: To establish a clinically relevant model of transient retinal ischemia by thrombotic occlusion-thrombolytic reperfusion of the central retinal artery of the rat. METHODS: Thrombus was photochemically induced in the central retinal artery by the combination of intravenous injection of photo-sensitive dye, rose bengal, and green laser irradiation focused on the artery. Transient retinal ischemia for 60 minutes was achieved by a subsequent systemic administration of tissue-type plasminogen activator to reperfuse the occluded vessel. Samples of retinas were excised from the animals killed 3, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 78 hours after the reperfusion. The experimental data were processed using the TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method to detect apoptotic cells. RESULTS: The transient retinal ischemia caused time-sequential apoptotic changes in the retinal cells as evaluated by counting the number of TUNEL-positive cells. The most remarkable changes occurred in the central area of retina, and further on the sections taken 24 hours after reperfusion. The peripheral area was less affected, and the outer nuclear cell layer was almost unaffected throughout the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method to cause retinal transient ischemia is highly reproducible, and it is easy to simulate the progress and topographical distribution of retinal changes observed in the clinical cases of central retinal arterial occlusion and its subsequent thrombolytic reperfusion. This may provide a useful tool for constructing the effective thrombolytic strategies against the central retinal arterial occlusion and for evaluating the effects of neuroprotective agents. (+info)
Apoptotic signalling cascade in photosensitized human epidermal carcinoma A431 cells: involvement of singlet oxygen, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, caspase-3 and p21-activated kinase 2.
Photodynamic treatment (PDT) elicits diverse cellular responses and can also cause apoptosis. In the present study the cascade of signalling events involved in PDT-induced apoptosis was investigated using Rose Bengal (RB) as the photosensitizer, and human epidermal carcinoma A431 cells as the cell model. We show that a 36-kDa kinase detected by an in-gel kinase assay is markedly activated during PDT-triggered apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis revealed that this 36-kDa kinase represents the C-terminal catalytic fragment of p21-activated kinase (PAK)2. Generation of this active fragment of PAK2 is mediated by the caspase family of proteases, which are activated by PDT. The specific caspase inhibitors (acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde and acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone) block the PDT-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent PAK2 cleavage/activation, indicating a major role for the caspase family proteases in PDT-induced apoptosis. Both PDT-induced caspase-3 activation and PAK2 cleavage/activation can be inhibited by the singlet oxygen scavengers, L-histidine and alpha-tocopherol, but not the hydroxyl radical scavenger, mannitol, demonstrating that singlet oxygen is an immediate early-apoptotic signal generated by PDT. In addition, PDT can induce a two-stage activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) in A431 cells; the early-stage JNK activation is singlet oxygen-dependent, whereas the late-stage JNK activation is mediated by the singlet oxygen-triggered caspase activation. Experiments using anti-sense oligonucleotides against JNK1 and PAK2 further show that during PDT-induced apoptosis the early-stage JNK activation is required for caspase activation, and that the late-stage JNK activation is regulated by the caspase-mediated cleavage/activation of PAK2. Collectively, a model for the PDT-triggered apoptotic signalling cascade with RB is proposed, which involves singlet oxygen, JNK, caspase-3 and PAK2, sequentially. (+info)