Dental workplace exposure and effect on fertility.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed occupational exposure in dental surgeries on the basis of the reported use of dental materials and techniques and applied waiting-time-to-pregnancy methodology to study fertility in relation to the occupational exposure. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively using a self-administered postal questionnaire addressing the occupational and reproductive history of the participants. The study groups consisted of 558 female dental surgeons and 450 high school teachers that had given birth in Norway to at least 1 living child. The present study comprised data from a total of 1408 pregnancies. The effects of practicing dentistry and of the given workplace exposure on fertility were analyzed with the discrete proportional hazard regression method. RESULTS: Most of the female dental surgeons were using amalgam for fillings during the period they tried to conceive, and 1/3 placed more than 50 fillings a week. Tooth-colored fillings were in limited use. Prior to 75% of the pregnancies, the dental surgeons reported handling chloroform-based root canal sealers. Forty percent of the dental surgeons were daily exposed to disinfectants containing ethanol and benzene. No difference was found in fertility between the dental surgeons and the high school teachers. Exposure to mercury, chloroform, and benzene was not associated with decreased fertility, except for a possible effect of mercury in the last pregnancy of multiparous dental surgeons. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposures had no clear adverse effects on fertility among the female dental surgeons studied. (+info)
BACKGROUND: Endodontics as a discipline has offered patients the opportunity to maintain their natural teeth. As the population expands and ages, the demand for endodontic therapy can be expected to increase as patients seek dental options to keep their teeth for a lifetime. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: New materials, techniques and instruments are entering the market-place to assist dentists in providing patients with more predictable and reliable endodontic treatment. In addition, these new systems make the delivery of endodontic services more efficient. This article describes these advances in endodontic treatment for dentists interested in incorporating these advances into their clinical practice. (+info)
The outcome of root canal treatment. A retrospective study within the armed forces (Royal Air Force).
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the outcome of conventional root canal treatment in a general practice setting within the Royal Air Force dental service. Design Retrospective review. METHODS: Teeth that had been root-filled for 12 months or more by Royal Air Force dental practitioners in patients attending a large Royal Air Force dental centre were included in the study. Following clinical and radiographic review the root fillings were classified as 'definitely successful', 'probably successful' or 'failed' The effect on success of several variables on the outcome was investigated. RESULTS: Out of a total of 406 teeth, 59% were maxillary teeth and 41% were mandibular teeth. Sixty-nine per cent of the total sample had pre-existing periapical radiolucencies. Cold lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the most widely used filling technique (64% of all cases). Fifty per cent of the teeth had root fillings within 2 mm of the radiographic apex, 32% were greater than 2 mm from the radiographic apex and 18% were overfilled. Cold lateral condensation was the most successful (92% overall) filling technique. Maxillary anterior teeth had a better success rate (96%) than other tooth types. Teeth with pre-existing periapical radiolucencies had a higher success rate (87%) than those cases where there was no pre-existing periapical radiolucency (80%). Root fillings that were less than 2 mm from the radiographic apex of the tooth had a higher success rate (88% overall) than those that were greater than 2 mm from the radiographic apex (77% overall). Of the 406 cases, 57% (n=231) were classified as definitely successful, 28% (n=114) were classified as probably successful and 15% (n=62) were classified as failures. Thus, the overall success rate combining definitely successful and probably successful root fillings was 85% (n=344). CONCLUSIONS: Root fillings placed using cold lateral condensation of gutta-percha to within 2 mm of the radiographic apex of the tooth were associated with the best outcome. (+info)
Influence of the spatulation of two zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers on the obturation of lateral canals.
The objective of this research was to evaluate, in vitro, the importance of the correct manipulation of endodontic sealers, correlating it with flow rate and with the consequent obturation of root canals. Twenty-four human canines were prepared, 1 mm from the apex, with K-files up to size 50, by means of the step-back technique. Six lateral canals were then drilled in each tooth, with size 10 file fixed to a low-speed handpiece. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups, and root canals were obturated either with the Endomethasoneregister mark or target sealer or Grossman sealer, prepared at ideal or incorrect clinical consistency. After obturation by means of the lateral condensation technique, the teeth were radiographed and evaluated as to the number of sealed lateral canals. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p < 0.001) between the tested sealers, and indicated the higher capacity of the well-manipulated Grossman sealer to fill lateral canals. It can be concluded that the flow rate of a sealer and its correct manipulation are very important for the satisfactory obturation of lateral canals. (+info)
Adverse reactions associated with the use of eugenol in dentistry.
Eugenol is a material commonly used in dentistry with few reported side effects. It is not however, a bio-friendly material when in contact with oral soft tissues. It can produce both local irritative and cytotoxic effects, as well as hypersensitivity reactions. Here we report on two cases of adverse local reaction to eugenol, contained within a temporary restorative material and a temporary cementation material respectively, which illustrate these problems. (+info)
Tissue reactions after intraosseous implantation of three retrofilling materials.
Bone tissue reactions to EBA, IRM, and cyanoacrylate cement (Base Liner) were studied in the rat mandible using an intraosseous implant method. Osseous cavities (1.4 mm in diameter) were surgically created in the mandibles, and materials were implanted in 60 male Wistar rats. Each specimen was evaluated histologically after 4 and 8 weeks. The development of fibrous connective tissue in direct apposition to the material was observed in the EBA and IRM groups at 4 weeks. A slight degree of macrophage infiltration was seen in the EBA group. After the 8-week observation period, IRM and EBA were frequently separated from the bone cavity by a fibrous connective tissue layer (p < 0.01). The Base Liner appeared to be in direct apposition to the osseous tissue in several areas (p < 0.01). These findings indicate that Base Liner reacts favorably with osseous tissue, compared with the EBA and IRM materials tested and seems to be a biocompatible material. (+info)
Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Sealapex, AH Plus or Sealer Plus for sealing. After 180 days, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the obtained histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for optical microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical repair. The groups filled with Sealapex and AH Plus had better histological repair (p < 0.05) than the group filled with Sealer Plus, that had unsatisfactory results. (+info)
Histopathological reactions of calcium phosphate cement.
Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) consisting of Ca4 (PO4)2O and CaHPO4 (2H2O) was recently developed. This study evaluated in vivo aspects of CPC and CPC mixtures compared to those of commercial hydroxyapatite (HP) and several endodontic materials: Grossman's cement (GC), calcium hydroxide-iodine paste (CHP) and gutta-percha plate (GP). Biocompatibility of subcutaneous implants in Donryu rats was evaluated after one month. Results showed very slight inflammatory reactions from CPC, CPC mixtures and HP. The materials were surrounded by thin fibrous connective tissues with a small number of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Severe inflammatory reactions were provoked by GC. Granulation tissues induced by CHP resembled those of pseudoxanthomatous granuloma. The GP material was encapsulated by relatively thick fibrous connective tissues with little inflammatory reactions. (+info)