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(1/269) Identification of yeasts by RFLP analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene and the two ribosomal internal transcribed spacers.

The identification and classification of yeasts have traditionally been based on morphological, physiological and biochemical traits. Various kits have been developed as rapid systems for yeast identification, but mostly for clinical diagnosis. In recent years, different molecular biology techniques have been developed for yeast identification, but there is no available database to identify a large number of species. In the present study, the restriction patterns generated from the region spanning the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene were used to identify a total of 132 yeast species belonging to 25 different genera, including teleomorphic and anamorphic ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts. In many cases, the size of the PCR products and the restriction patterns obtained with endonucleases CfoI, HaeIII and HinfI yielded a unique profile for each species. Accordingly, the use of this molecular approach is proposed as a new rapid and easy method of routine yeast identification.  (+info)

(2/269) Rapid identification of fungi by using the ITS2 genetic region and an automated fluorescent capillary electrophoresis system.

Invasive fungal disease often plays an important role in the morbidity and mortality of immunocompromised patients. The poor sensitivity of current fungal blood culture and histological practices has led to the development of highly sensitive and specific molecular techniques, such as the PCR. Sequence variability of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of fungi is potentially useful in rapid and accurate diagnosis of clinical fungal isolates. PCR with fungus-specific primers targeted toward conserved sequences of the 5.8S and 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) results in amplification of the species-specific ITS2 regions, which are variable in amplicon length. We have made use of the ABI PRISM 310 genetic analyzer and the ABI PRISM 310 GeneScan analysis software for the determination of variable size differences of the ITS2 region of clinically important fungi, including Candida and non-Candida yeasts, Aspergillus species, and a variety of dermatophytes. No cross-reaction occurred when samples were tested against human and bacterial genomic DNA. We have found that most clinically significant fungal isolates can be differentiated by this method, and it therefore serves to be a promising tool for the rapid (<7 h) diagnosis of fungemia and other invasive fungal infections.  (+info)

(3/269) The roles of Rrp5p in the synthesis of yeast 18S and 5.8S rRNA can be functionally and physically separated.

The yeast nucleolar protein Rrp5p is the only known trans-acting factor that is essential for the synthesis of both 18S rRNA and the major, short form of 5.8S (5.8Ss) rRNA, which were thought to be produced in two independent sets of pre-rRNA processing reactions. To identify domains within Rrp5p required for either processing pathway, we have analyzed a set of eight deletion mutants that together cover the entire RRP5 sequence. Surprisingly, only one of the deletions is lethal, indicating that regions encompassing about 80% of the protein can be removed individually without disrupting its essential biological function. Biochemical analysis clearly demonstrated the presence of two distinct functional domains. Removal of each of three contiguous segments from the N-terminal half specifically inhibits the formation of 5.8Ss rRNA, whereas deleting part of the C-terminal region of the protein only blocks the production of 18S rRNA. The latter phenotype is also caused by a temperature-sensitive mutation within the same C-terminal region. The two functional regions identified by the mutational analysis appear to be correlated with the structural domains detected by computer analysis. They can even be physically separated, as demonstrated by the fact that full Rrp5p activity can be supplied by two contiguous protein fragments expressed in trans.  (+info)

(4/269) Nested allele-specific PCR primers distinguish genetic groups of Uncinula necator.

Isolates of the obligately biotrophic fungus Uncinula necator cluster in three distinct genetic groups (groups I, II, and III). We designed PCR primers specific for these groups in order to monitor field populations of U. necator. We used the nucleotide sequences of the gene that encodes eburicol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) and of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), ITS2, and 5. 8S regions. We identified four point mutations (three in CYP51 and one in ITS1) that distinguished groups I and II from group III based on a sample of 132 single-spore isolates originating from Europe, Tunisia, Israel, India, and Australia. We developed a nested allele-specific PCR assay in which the CYP51 point mutations were used to detect and distinguish groups I and II from group III in crude mildewed samples from vineyards. In a preliminary study performed with samples from French vineyards in which isolates belonging to genetic groups I and III were present, we found that a shift from a population composed primarily of group I isolates to a population composed primarily of group III isolates occurred during the grapevine growing season.  (+info)

(5/269) Nucleolar factors direct the 2'-O-ribose methylation and pseudouridylation of U6 spliceosomal RNA.

The nucleolus has long been known as a functionally highly specialized subnuclear compartment where synthesis, posttranscriptional modification, and processing of cytoplasmic rRNAs take place. In this study, we demonstrate that the nucleolus contains all the trans-acting factors that are responsible for the accurate and efficient synthesis of the eight 2'-O-methylated nucleotides and three pseudouridine residues carried by the mammalian U6 spliceosomal small nuclear RNA. Factors mediating the formation of pseudouridine residues in the U3 small nucleolar RNA are also present and functionally active in the nucleolus. For selection of the correct target nucleotides in the U6 and U3 RNAs, the nucleolar 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation factors rely on short sequences located around the target nucleotide to be modified. This observation further underscores a recently proposed role for small nucleolar guide RNAs in the 2'-O-methylation of the U6 spliceosomal RNA (K. T. Tycowski, Z.-H. You, P. J. Graham, and J. A. Steitz, Mol. Cell 2:629-638, 1998). We demonstrate that a novel 2'-O-methylated nucleotide can be generated in the yeast U6 RNA by use of an artificial 2'-O-methylation small nucleolar guide RNA. We also show that a short fragment of the 5.8S rRNA, when expressed as part of the human U6 RNA, is faithfully 2'-O-methylated and pseudouridylated. These results are most consistent with a trafficking pathway in which the U6 spliceosomal RNA cycles through the nucleolus to undergo nucleolar RNA-directed modifications.  (+info)

(6/269) Mutagenesis of SNM1, which encodes a protein component of the yeast RNase MRP, reveals a role for this ribonucleoprotein endoribonuclease in plasmid segregation.

RNase MRP is a ribonucleoprotein endoribonuclease that has been shown to have roles in both mitochondrial DNA replication and nuclear 5.8S rRNA processing. SNM1 encodes an essential 22.5-kDa protein that is a component of yeast RNase MRP. It is an RNA binding protein that binds the MRP RNA specifically. This 198-amino-acid protein can be divided into three structural regions: a potential leucine zipper near the amino terminus, a binuclear zinc cluster in the middle region, and a serine- and lysine-rich region near the carboxy terminus. We have performed PCR mutagenesis of the SNM1 gene to produce 17 mutants that have a conditional phenotype for growth at different temperatures. Yeast strains carrying any of these mutations as the only copy of snm1 display an rRNA processing defect identical to that in MRP RNA mutants. We have characterized these mutant proteins for RNase MRP function by examining 5.8S rRNA processing, MRP RNA binding in vivo, and the stability of the RNase MRP RNA. The results indicate two separate functional domains of the protein, one responsible for binding the MRP RNA and a second that promotes substrate cleavage. The Snm1 protein appears not to be required for the stability of the MRP RNA, but very low levels of the protein are required for processing of the 5.8S rRNA. Surprisingly, a large number of conditional mutations that resulted from nonsense and frameshift mutations throughout the coding regions were identified. The most severe of these was a frameshift at amino acid 7. These mutations were found to be undergoing translational suppression, resulting in a small amount of full-length Snm1 protein. This small amount of Snm1 protein was sufficient to maintain enough RNase MRP activity to support viability. Translational suppression was accomplished in two ways. First, CEN plasmid missegregation leads to plasmid amplification, which in turn leads to SNM1 mRNA overexpression. Translational suppression of a small amount of the superabundant SNM1 mRNA results in sufficient Snm1 protein to support viability. CEN plasmid missegregation is believed to be the result of a prolonged telophase arrest that has been recently identified in RNase MRP mutants. Either the SNM1 gene is inherently susceptible to translational suppression or extremely small amounts of Snm1 protein are sufficient to maintain essential levels of MRP activity.  (+info)

(7/269) Kluyveromyces nonfermentans sp. nov., a new yeast species isolated from the deep sea.

Eleven strains of a new species of the genus Kluyveromyces, characterized as having evanescent asci and Q-6 as the major ubiquinone, were isolated from sediments, a clam and a crab collected at depths of 1000-2000 m in Suruga Bay and Sagami Bay, Japan. A phylogenetic tree based on small-subunit (18S) rRNA gene sequences placed these isolates into a cluster of Kluyveromyces. DNA complementarity and phylogenetic trees of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and 5.8S rRNA genes showed that the isolates are closely related to Kluyveromyces aestuarii, but that these two species are genetically distinct. The isolates are described as Kluyveromyces nonfermentans sp. nov. Because this species lacks the fermentative ability considered to be an important criterion for the genus Kluyveromyces, the definition of the genus has been emended. The type strain of K. nonfermentans is strain SY-33T (= JCM 10232T).  (+info)

(8/269) rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 sequences of asexual, anthropophilic dermatophytes related to Trichophyton rubrum.

The ribosomal region spanning the two internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the 5.8S ribosomal DNA region was sequenced for asexual, anthropophilic dermatophyte species with morphological similarity to Trichophyton rubrum, as well as for members of the three previously delineated, related major clades in the T. mentagrophytes complex. Representative isolates of T. raubitschekii, T. fischeri, and T. kanei were found to have ITS sequences identical to that of T. rubrum. The ITS sequences of T. soudanense and T. megninii differed from that of T. rubrum by only a small number of base pairs. Their continued status as species, however, appears to meet criteria outlined in the population genetics-based cohesion species concept of A. R. Templeton. The ITS sequence of T. tonsurans differed from that of the biologically distinct T. equinum by only 1 bp, while the ITS sequence of the recently described species T. krajdenii had a sequence identical to that of T. mentagrophytes isolates related to the teleomorph Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii.  (+info)