(1/241) A cis-acting A-U sequence element induces kinetoplastid U-insertions.

A 34-nucleotide A-U sequence located immediately upstream of the editing sites of the Leishmania tarentolae cytochrome b mRNA induces a mitochondrial extract to insert U nucleotides independent of guide RNA. Insertions are localized to positions immediately 5' and 3' of the A-U sequence. When placed within an unedited mammalian transcript, the A-U sequence is sufficient to induce U-insertions. The sequence has a high degree of similarity with the templating nucleotides of a cytochrome b guide RNA and with a sequence adjacent to the editing sites in ND7 mRNA, the other characterized kinetoplastid mRNA supporting guide RNA-independent U-insertions. At least one protein specifically interacts with the A-U sequence. The reaction is consistent with a mechanism proposed for guide RNA-directed editing.  (+info)

(2/241) The involvement of gRNA-binding protein gBP21 in RNA editing-an in vitro and in vivo analysis.

RNA editing in the parasitic organism Trypanosoma brucei is characterised by the insertion and deletion of uridylate residues into otherwise incomplete primary transcripts. The processing reaction is a required pathway for the expression of most mitochondrial genes and proceeds by a cascade of enzyme-catalysed steps. RNA editing involves one or more macromolecular ribonucleoprotein complexes which are likely to interact with additional components as the reaction proceeds. Here we examined the involvement of the gRNA-binding polypeptide gBP21, a protein which has been demonstrated to be associated with active RNA editing complexes. We show that in vitro RNA editing can be suppressed by the addition of a gBP21-specific antibody or by immunodepletion of the protein. By creating a gBP21 knockout mutant we analysed the requirement for the protein in vivo. gBP21(-) trypanosomes are viable as bloodstream stage cells and contain edited mRNAs. However, the knockout mutant is not capable of differentiating from the bloodstream to the insect life cycle stage in vitro. Moreover, mutant cells are characterised by a low mitochondrial transcript abundance. Together, these data establish that gBP21 contributes a non-essential function to the RNA editing reaction and further suggest that the protein is involved in additional mitochondrial processes which impact a larger pool of mitochondrial transcripts.  (+info)

(3/241) Trypanosoma brucei RBP16 is a mitochondrial Y-box family protein with guide RNA binding activity.

Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria possess a unique mechanism of mRNA maturation called RNA editing. In this process, uridylate residues are inserted and deleted posttranscriptionally into pre-mRNA to create translatable messages. The genetic information for RNA editing resides in small RNA molecules called guide RNAs (gRNAs). Thus, proteins in direct contact with gRNA are likely to catalyze or influence RNA editing. Herein we characterize an abundant gRNA-binding protein from T. brucei mitochondria. This protein, which we term RBP16 (for RNA-binding protein of 16 kDa), binds to different gRNA molecules. The major determinant of this interaction is the oligo(U) tail, present on the 3'-ends of gRNAs. RBP16 forms multiple, stable complexes with gRNA in vitro, and immunoprecipitation experiments provide evidence for an association between RBP16 and gRNA within T. brucei mitochondria. Mature RBP16 contains a cold shock domain at the N terminus and a C-terminal region rich in arginine and glycine. The presence of the cold shock domain places RBP16 as the first organellar member of the highly conserved Y-box protein family. The arginine and glycine rich C terminus in combination with the cold shock domain predicts that RBP16 will be involved in the regulation of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level.  (+info)

(4/241) In vitro uridine insertion RNA editing mediated by cis-acting guide RNAs.

Uridine (U) insertion/deletion editing of mitochondrial mRNAs in kinetoplastid protozoa is a posttranscriptional process mediated by guide RNAs (gRNAs). The gRNAs direct the precise insertion and deletion of Us by a cleavage-ligation mechanism involving base pairing. We show that a cognate gRNA in cis at the 3' end of a preedited NADH dehydrogenase 7 (ND7) mRNA substrate can direct U insertions at editing site 1 when incubated with a mitochondrial lysate from Leishmania tarentolae. The efficiency of gRNA-dependent U insertion mediated by a cis-acting gRNA is greater on a molar basis than that for a trans-acting gRNA, as expected for a unimolecular gRNA:mRNA interaction. Blocking the 3' end of a cis-acting gRNA lacking a 3' oligo[U] tail has no effect on gRNA-dependent U insertions, nor does providing the gRNA in cis upstream of the mRNA, confirming the previous observation that the terminal 2'- and 3'-hydroxyls of the gRNA are not involved in U insertion activity. These results also establish that the oligo[U] tail is not required for U insertion in vitro. Increasing the extent of base pairing between the 3' end of the gRNA and the 5' end of the mRNA significantly increases in vitro gRNA-dependent U insertion at site 1, presumably by maintaining the mRNA 5' cleavage fragment within the editing complex. We speculate that, in vivo, protein:RNA and/or protein:protein interactions may be responsible for maintaining the mRNA 5' cleavage fragment in close proximity to the mRNA 3' cleavage fragment, and that such interactions may be rate limiting in vitro.  (+info)

(5/241) Kinetoplastid RNA editing does not require the terminal 3' hydroxyl of guide RNA, but modifications to the guide RNA terminus can inhibit in vitro U insertion.

During RNA editing in kinetoplastid parasites, trans-acting guide RNAs (gRNAs) direct the insertion and deletion of U residues at precise sites in mitochondrial pre-mRNAs. We show here that some modifications to the 3' terminal ribose of gRNA inhibit its ability to direct in vitro U insertion. However, we found that gRNAs lacking this moiety in some circumstances support in vitro editing. Thus, the 3' OH is not required. Inhibition resulting from gRNA modification can be overcome by increasing the gRNA-pre-mRNA base-pairing potential upstream of the editing site, suggesting an importance for this interaction to productive processing.  (+info)

(6/241) Nucleolar factors direct the 2'-O-ribose methylation and pseudouridylation of U6 spliceosomal RNA.

The nucleolus has long been known as a functionally highly specialized subnuclear compartment where synthesis, posttranscriptional modification, and processing of cytoplasmic rRNAs take place. In this study, we demonstrate that the nucleolus contains all the trans-acting factors that are responsible for the accurate and efficient synthesis of the eight 2'-O-methylated nucleotides and three pseudouridine residues carried by the mammalian U6 spliceosomal small nuclear RNA. Factors mediating the formation of pseudouridine residues in the U3 small nucleolar RNA are also present and functionally active in the nucleolus. For selection of the correct target nucleotides in the U6 and U3 RNAs, the nucleolar 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation factors rely on short sequences located around the target nucleotide to be modified. This observation further underscores a recently proposed role for small nucleolar guide RNAs in the 2'-O-methylation of the U6 spliceosomal RNA (K. T. Tycowski, Z.-H. You, P. J. Graham, and J. A. Steitz, Mol. Cell 2:629-638, 1998). We demonstrate that a novel 2'-O-methylated nucleotide can be generated in the yeast U6 RNA by use of an artificial 2'-O-methylation small nucleolar guide RNA. We also show that a short fragment of the 5.8S rRNA, when expressed as part of the human U6 RNA, is faithfully 2'-O-methylated and pseudouridylated. These results are most consistent with a trafficking pathway in which the U6 spliceosomal RNA cycles through the nucleolus to undergo nucleolar RNA-directed modifications.  (+info)

(7/241) Trypanosoma brucei guide RNA poly(U) tail formation is stabilized by cognate mRNA.

Guide RNAs (gRNAs) are small RNAs that provide specificity for uridine addition and deletion during mRNA editing in trypanosomes. Terminal uridylyl transferase (TUTase) adds uridines to pre-mRNAs during RNA editing and adds a poly(U) tail to the 3' end of gRNAs. The poly(U) tail may stabilize the association of gRNAs with cognate mRNA during editing. Both TUTase and gRNAs associate with two ribonucleoprotein complexes, I (19S) and II (35S to 40S). Complex II is believed to be the fully assembled active editing complex, since it contains pre-edited mRNA and enzymes thought necessary for editing. Purification of TUTase from mitochondrial extracts resulted in the identification of two chromatographically distinct TUTase activities. Stable single-uridine addition to different substrate RNAs is performed by the 19S complex, despite the presence of a uridine-specific 3' exonuclease within this complex. Multiple uridines are added to substrate RNAs by a 10S particle that may be an unstable subunit of complex I lacking the uridine-specific 3' exonuclease. Multiple uridines could be stably added onto gRNAs by complex I when the cognate mRNA is present. We propose a model in which the purine-rich region of the cognate mRNA protects the uridine tail from a uridine exonuclease activity that is present within the complex. To test this model, we have mutated the purine-rich region of the pre-mRNA to abolish base-pairing interaction with the poly(U) tail of the gRNA. This RNA fails to protect the uridine tail of the gRNA from exoribonucleolytic trimming and is consistent with a role for the purine-rich region of the mRNA in gRNA maturation.  (+info)

(8/241) Mitochondrial minicircles in the free-living bodonid Bodo saltans contain two gRNA gene cassettes and are not found in large networks.

In trypanosomatids, the majority of the guide (g) RNAs that provide the information for U-insertion/deletion RNA editing are encoded by minicircles that are catenated into large networks. In contrast, in the distantly related cryptobiid Trypanoplasma borreli, gRNA genes appear to reside in large 180-kb noncatenated DNA circles. To shed light on the evolutionary history and function of the minicircle network, we have analyzed minicircle organization in the free-living bodonid Bodo saltans, which is more closely related to trypanosomatids than T. borreli. We identified 1.4-kb circular DNAs as the B. saltans equivalent of minicircles via sequence analysis of 4 complete minicircles, 14 minicircle fragments, and 14 gRNAs. We show that each minicircle harbors two gRNA gene cassettes of opposite polarity residing in variable regions of about 200 nt in otherwise highly conserved molecules. In the conserved region, B. saltans minicircles contain a putative bent helix sequence and a degenerate dodecamer motif (CSB-3). Electron microscopy, sedimentation, and gel electrophoresis analyses showed no evidence for the existence of large minicircle networks in B. saltans, the large majority of the minicircles being present as circular and linear monomers (85-90%) with small amounts of catenated dimers and trimers. Our results provide the first example of a kinetoplastid species with noncatenated, gRNA gene-containing minicircles, which implies that the creation of minicircles and minicircle networks are separate evolutionary events.  (+info)